Everglades: Perbedaan revisi

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{{Infobox settlement
| name =Everglades
| native_name =
| settlement_type = Daerah Rawa
| image_skyline = Everglades Sawgrass Prairie Moni3.JPG
| image_alt =
| image_caption = Kawasan padang rumput di Everglades.
| image_seal =
| seal_alt =
| image_shield =
| shield_alt =
| nickname =
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| image_map = Evergladesareamap.png
| map_alt =
| map_caption = Letak Everglades di Semenanjung [[Florida]] (Peta)
| latd = |latm = |lats = |latNS =
| longd = |longm =|longs = |longEW =
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| coordinates_display = inline,title
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| subdivision_type = Negara
| subdivision_name = [[Amerika Serikat]]
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'''Everglades''' adalah daerah [[rawa]] di Florida, Amerika Serikat dan terletak di bagian selatan [[Danau Okeechobee]].<ref name="ensiklopedi"> {{cite book|title=Ensiklopedia Indonesia|volume=7|author=Shadily, Hassan|date=1984|publisher=PT Ichtiar Baru van Hoeve|location=Jakarta}}</ref> Daerah ini memiliki luas 13.350 km<sup>2</sup> dengan panjang 180 km dan lebar 70 km.<ref name="ensiklopedi"/> Di daerah ini terdapat banyak saluran air, [[terusan]] dan pulau.<ref name="ensiklopedi"/> Selain itu, di Everglades terdapat banyak tumbuhan tropis, termasuk [[anggrek]] dan cipres.<ref name="ensiklopedi"/> Hewan tropis juga terdapat di derah ini, seperti [[buaya]] dan [[penyu]] raksasa.<ref name="ensiklopedi"/> Ada pula [[taman nasional]] dan daerah suaka untuk suku Indian Seminole.<ref name="ensiklopedi"/>
[[File:Evergladesareamap.png|thumb|Letak Everglades di peta]]
 
Sejak tahun 1900 sebagian besar wilayah Everglades telah dikeringkan untuk pertanian dan pembangunan perkotaan. Saat ini hanya 50 persen lahan yang masih asli.<ref name="usgs"> {{cite web|title=Florida Everglades|url=http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/circular/1182/|accessdate= 15-06-2014|publisher=South Florida Information Access (SOFIA)|language=Inggris}}</ref> Everglades merupakan salah satu daerah terendah, termuda dan secara geologis adalah daerah paling stabil di [[Amerika Utara]].<ref name="archive"> {{cite web|title=Everglades Information: Geology|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20080116150457/http://glades.sfwmd.gov/empact/home/02_everglades/03_geology.shtml|archivedate=16-01-2008|url=http://glades.sfwmd.gov/empact/home/02_everglades/03_geology.shtml|publisher=South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD)|accessdate= 15-06-2014|language=Inggris}}</ref> Everglades meliputi beberapa tempat, yaitu Carnestown, Chokoloskee, Copeland, Kota Everglades, Lee Cypress, Stasiun Monroe, Ochopee, Pulau Plantation, Pelabuhan dan Desa Seaboard.<ref name="eo"> {{cite web|title=History of Everglades|url=http://www.evergladesonline.com/history.htm|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20141017210307/http://evergladesonline.com/history.htm|archivedate=17-10-2014|publisher=CI Interactive|location=Florida|accessdate= 28-11-2014|language=Inggris}}</ref> Everglades menjadi tempat tinggal bagi Suku [[Indian]] Calusa selama lebih dari tiga abad.<ref name="eo"/> Di sana suku Indian Calusa membangun tumpukan [[kerang]] besar di dekat Pulau Chokoloskee.<ref name="eo"/>
'''Everglades''' adalah daerah [[rawa]] di Florida, Amerika Serikat dan terletak di bagian selatan [[Danau Okeechobee]].<ref name="ensiklopedi"> {{cite book|title=Ensiklopedia Indonesia, Jilid 7|author=Ichtiar Baru Van Hoeve; Hassan Shadily|publisher=Jakarta: PT Ichtiar Baru van Hoeve}}</ref> Daerah ini memiliki luas 13.350 km<sup>2</sup> dengan panjang 180 km dan lebar 70 km.<ref name="ensiklopedi"/> Di daerah ini terdapat banyak saluran air, [[terusan]] dan pulau.<ref name="ensiklopedi"/> Selain itu, di Everglades terdapat banyak tumbuhan tropis, termasuk [[anggrek]] dan cipres.<ref name="ensiklopedi"/> Hewan tropis juga terdapat di derah ini, seperti [[buaya]] dan [[penyu]] raksasa.<ref name="ensiklopedi"/> Ada pula [[taman nasional]] dan daerah suaka untuk suku Indian Seminole.<ref name="ensiklopedi"/>
 
== Asal mula nama ==
Sejak tahun 1900 sebagain besar wilayah Everglades telah dikeringkan untuk pertanian dan pembangunan perkotaan. Saat ini hanya 50 persen lahan yang masih asli.<ref name="usgs"> {{cite web|title=Florida Everglades|url=http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/circular/1182/|accessdate= 15 Juni 2014}}</ref> Everglades merupakan salah satu daerah terendah, termuda dan secara geologis adalah daerah paling stabil di [[Amerika Utara]].<ref name="archive"> {{cite web|title=Everglades Information: Geology|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20080116150457/http://glades.sfwmd.gov/empact/home/02_everglades/03_geology.shtml|accessdate= 15 Juni 2014}}</ref> Everglades meliputi beberapa tempat, yaitu Carnestown, Chokoloskee, Copeland, Kota Everglades, Lee Cypress, Stasiun Monroe, Ochopee, Pulau Plantation, Pelabuhan dan Desa Seaboard.<ref name="eo"> {{cite web|title=History of Everglades|url=http://www.evergladesonline.com/history.htm|accessdate= 15 Juni 2014}}</ref> Everglades menjadi tempat tinggal bagi Suku [[Indian]] Calusa selama lebih dari tiga abad.<ref name="eo"/> Di sana suku Indian Calusa membangun tumpukan [[kerang]] besar di dekat Pulau Chokoloskee.<ref name="eo"/>
Catatan tertulis pertama mengenai Everglades adalah peta Spanyol yang dibuat oleh [[kartografer]] yang belum pernah melihat langsung wilayah itu. Mereka menamakan wilayah yang belum dikenal di antara Teluk dan Pantai Atlantik di Florida ''Laguna del Espíritu Santo'' ("Danau Roh Kudus").<ref>{{cite web|url=http://scholar.library.miami.edu/floridamaps/view_image.php?image_name=dlp00020000580001001&group=english|title=Old Florida Maps |publisher=University of Miami Libraries and Dr. Joe Fitzgerald|accessdate=22-08-2008|language=Inggris}}</ref> Wilayah tersebut muncul di peta selama berpuluh-puluh tahun tanpa pernah dieksplorasi.
 
Kartografer Inggris [[John William Gerard de Brahm|John Gerard de Brahm]], yang memetakan pantai Florida pada 1773, menyebut wilayah tersebut "River Glades". Marjory Stoneman Douglas dan ahli bahasa Wallace McMullen mengusulkan pada kartografer itu mengganti kata "River" menjadi "Ever".<ref name="mcmullen">{{cite journal|last=McMullen|first=E. Wallace|date=02-1953
|title=The Origin of the Term Everglades|journal=American Speech|volume=28|issue=1|pages=26–34|publisher=The American Dialect Society|jstor=454403|language=Inggris}}</ref>ref name="Douglasname">Douglas, hlm. 7–8.</ref> Nama "Everglades" pertama kali muncul di peta pada 1823, meskipun nama itu juga dieja sebagai "Ever Glades" hingga akhir 1851.<ref name="dovell">{{cite journal|last=Dovell |first= J.E|date=07-1947 | title=The Everglades Before Reclamation|journal=The Florida Historical Quarterly |volume=26 |issue=1|pages=1–44|language=Inggris|publisher=Florida Historical Society|url=http://sofia.usgs.gov/memorials/dovell/flhistsoc_glades_dovell.txt}}</ref>
 
== Referensi ==
{{reflist}}
 
==Bibliografi==
<div class="references-small">{{Colbegin}}
* Barnett, Cynthia (2007). ''Mirage: Florida and the Vanishing Water of the Eastern U.S.'', University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-11563-4
* Carter, W. Hodding (2004). ''Stolen Water: Saving the Everglades from its Friends, Foes, and Florida'', Atria Books. ISBN 0-7434-7407-4
* Caulfield, Patricia (1970) ''Everglades'', Sierra Club / Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-02353-6
* [[Marjory Stoneman Douglas|Douglas, Marjory S.]] (1947). ''The Everglades: River of Grass''. R. Bemis Publishing. ISBN 0-912451-44-0
* Douglas, Marjory; Rothchild, John (1987). ''Marjory Stoneman Douglas: Voice of the River''. Pineapple Press. ISBN 0-910923-94-9
* Ferriter, Amy; Serbesoff-King, Kristina; Bodle, Mike; Goodyear, Carole; Doren, Bob; Langeland, Ken (2004). [https://my.sfwmd.gov/portal/page/portal/pg_grp_sfwmd_sfer/portlet_prevreport/final/chapters/ch8e.pdf Chapter 8E: Exotic Species in the Everglades Protection Area], South Florida Water Management District
* [[Jean Craighead George|George, Jean]] (1972). ''Everglades Wildguide''. [[National Park Service]]. Gov. doc #I 29.62:Ev2
* Griffin, John (2002). ''Archeology of the Everglades''. University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-2558-3
* Grunwald, Michael (2006). ''The Swamp: The Everglades, Florida, and the Politics of Paradise''. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-5107-5
* Hann, John (ed.) (1991). ''Missions to the Calusa''. University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-1966-4
* Jewell, Susan (1993). ''Exploring Wild South Florida: A Guide to Finding the Natural Areas and Wildlife of the Everglades and Florida Keys'', Pineapple Press, Inc. ISBN 1-56164-023-9
* Lodge, Thomas E. (2005). ''The Everglades Handbook. Understanding the Ecosystem''. CRC Press. ISBN 1-884015-06-9
* McCally, David (1999). ''The Everglades: An Environmental History''. University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-2302-5
* Ripple, Jeff (1992). ''Big Cypress Swamp and the Ten Thousand Islands: Eastern America's Last Great Wilderness'', University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 0-87249-842-5
* [[Charlton Tebeau|Tebeau, Charlton]] (1968). ''Man in the Everglades: 2000 Years of Human History in the Everglades National Park''. University of Miami Press.
* Toops, Connie (1998). ''The Florida Everglades''. Voyageur Press. ISBN 0-89658-372-4
* [[Korps insinyur (Angkatan Darat Amerika Serikat)|U.S. Army Corps of Engineers]] dan South Florida Water Management District (April 1999). "Summary", [http://www.evergladesplan.org/docs/comp_plan_apr99/summary.pdf ''Central and Southern Florida Project Comprehensive Review Study''].
* [[Universitas Florida|University of Florida]] Agricultural Experiment Station dan [[Departemen Pertanian Amerika Serikat|United States Department of Agriculture]] Soil Conservation Service (Maret 1948). ''Bulletin 442: Soils, Geology, and Water Control in the Everglades Region''.
* Whitney, Ellie et al., eds. (2004) ''Priceless Florida: Natural Ecosystems and Native Species''. Pineapple Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-56164-309-7
* Wilhelm, Chris, “Pragmatism, Seminoles, and Science: Opposition to Progressive Everglades Drainage,” ''Florida Historical Quarterly,'' 90 (Spring 2012), 426–52.
{{Colend}}</div>
 
== Pranala luar ==
; Geografi dan ekologi
*[http://www.nps.gov/ever/index.htm Taman Nasional Everglades] dan [http://www.nps.gov/bicy/index.htm Cagar Nasional Big Cypress]]
 
; Sejarah
*[http://sofia.usgs.gov/memorials/dovell/#thesis Sejarah Everglades]
*{{cite journal|url=http://www.thefreelibrary.com/A+recent+history+of+Everglades+regulation+and+litigation.-a078861461|title=A Recent History of Everglades Regulation and Litigation|last=Rizzardi|first=Keith W.|journal=Florida Bar Journal |date=01-03-2001 }}
*[http://www.wdl.org/en/item/4036 Informasi sejarah mengenai Everglades dari] [[World Digital Library]]
*[http://www.notesfromthefieldtv.com Serial televisi publik mengenai sejarah Everglades Florida]
 
; Restorasi
*[http://www.evergladesplan.org/ Rencana Restorasi Everglades Komprehensif/''The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan'' (CERP)]
*[http://www.evergladesfoundation.org/ The Everglades Foundation]
*[http://www.evergladescoalition.org/ The Everglades Coalition]
*[http://sofia.usgs.gov South Florida Information Access (U.S. Geological Survey)]
*[http://www.environmentflorida.org Environment Florida]
*[http://www.everglades.org/ Friends of the Everglades]
*[http://www.sfwmd.gov/sfer/ Laporan Lingkungan Florida Selatan (South Florida Water Management District dan Florida DEP)]
 
; Media
*[http://everglades.fiu.edu/ Everglades Digital Library]
*[http://www.TheEvergladesStory.org/ Water's Journey: Everglades – Dokumentasi film dan web komprehensif mengenai Everglades]
* [http://whttp://floridamemory.com/photographiccollection/photo_exhibits/everglades/ The Everglades in the Time of Marjorie Stoneman Douglas] (Galeri foto)
* [http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/ecoregions/60904frame.htm Gambar-gambar Everglades di bioimages.vanderbilt.edu]
*[http://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2010/10/08/opinion/20101008_LR_Florida.html The Everglades in Peril] - slideshow dari ''[[The New York Times]]''
 
{{commons category|Everglades}}
 
{{Coord|26.0|-80.7|region:US-FL_scale:2000000|display=title}}
 
[[Kategori:Rawa]]