Tebet: Perbedaan antara revisi

11.465 bita ditambahkan ,  9 tahun yang lalu
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{{Untuk|kecamatan di Jakarta|Tebet, Jakarta Selatan}}
{{Hebrew month|letname= Tebet (טֵבֵת)|previouslink= Kislev |previousletter= Kislew|nextlink= Shebat|nextletter= Shebat |num=10|days=29|season=winter|gregorian=December–January|filename=Esther haram.jpg|name=Queen Esther|caption=On the 1st of Tebet, 362 [[Common Era|B.C.E.]],<br>[[Esther]] was crowned Queen of [[Persian Empire|Persia]].}}
'''Tebet''' adalah [[bulan (waktu)|bulan]] kesepuluh dalam [[Kalender Yahudi]].
'''Tebet''' ({{Hebrew name|טֵבֵת|Tevet|Ṭēḇēṯ}}; <small>[[Sephardim]]/[[Yahudi Yaman]]/[[Mizrachim]]</small> "Tebeth"; <small>[[Yahudi Ashkenazi]]</small> ''Teves''; dari [[bahasa Akkadia]] ''ṭebētu'') adalah [[bulan (waktu)|bulan]] keempat dalam perhitungan tahun sipil dan bulan kesepuluh dalam tahun eklesiastikal pada [[Kalender Yahudi]], sesudah bulan [[Kislew]] dan diikuti oleh bulan [[Syebat]]. Jatuh pada musim dingin. Panjangnya 29 hari. Tebet biasanya jatuh pada bulan [[Desember]]–[[Januari]] pada [[Kalender Gregorian]].
== [[Tahun Baru]] Gregorian ==
Tanggal 1 Januari yaitu tahun baru dalam [[Kalender Gregorian]] calendar|Gregorian]] New Year's Day nearly always occurs in this month. Only rarely will it occur in either of the two neighbouring months.
== Hari raya pada bulan Tebet ==
'''25 [[Kislew]] — 2 Tebet ''' - '''[[Hanukkah]]''' (atau sampai 3 Tebet bila bulan Kislew pendek)<br>
* [[Hannukah]]
'''10 Tebet''' - hari puasa
== Sejarah Yahudi ==
'''1 Tebet'''
* 362 SM (3498 tahun Yahudi) - [[Ester bin Abihail]] diangkat menjadi ratu Persia ({{Alkitab|Ester 2:16-17}})
**<small>Menurut catatan [[Kitab Ester]][[Ester 2| pasal 2]]:16-17, "and Esther was taken to King [[Achashverosh]], to his palace, in the tenth month, which is the month of Tebet, in the seventh year of his reign. And the king loved Esther more than all the women, and she won his favor and kindness more than all the [[virgin]]s; he placed the royal [[Crown (headgear)|crown]] on her head and made her queen in [[Vashti]]'s stead." Enam tahun kemudian, hari raya [[Purim]] mulai dirayakan pada tanggal 13 dan 14 bulan [[Adar]] tahun Yahudi 3504 (= 356 SM).</small>
'''8 Tebet'''
* 246 SM - [[Taurat]] diterjemahkan ke dalam [[bahasa Yunani]]
**<small>This was the second attempt to translate the Torah into Greek (there was an unsuccessful attempt 61 years earlier), the ruling [[Greeks|Greek]]-[[Ancient Egypt|Egyptian]] emperor [[Ptolemy]] according to legend, gathered 72 Torah [[Wise old man|sages]], had them sequestered in 72 separate rooms, and ordered them to each produce a translation. On the 8th of Tebet of the Hebrew year 3515 (246 [[Common Era|BCE]]) they produced 72 independent translations, including identical changes in 13 places (where they each felt that a literal translation would constitute a corruption of the Torah's true meaning). This Greek rendition became known as the [[Septuagint]], "of the seventy" (though later versions that carry this name are not believed to be true to the originals). Greek became a significant second language among Jews as a result of this translation. During Talmudic times, Tebet 8 was observed by some as a fast day, expressing the fear of the detrimental effect of the translation.</small>
'''9 Tebet'''
* 313 SM - Meninggalnya [[Ezra]]
*<small>*[[Ezra]], who led the return of the Jewish people to the [[Land of Israel]] after the [[Babylonian exile]] (423-353 BCE), oversaw the building of the [[Second Temple]], canonized the 24 books of the Bible and, as head of the "[[Great Assembly]]" legislated a series of laws and practices (including formalized prayer) which left a strong impact to Judaism until even this day. He died on the 9th of Tebet of the Hebrew year 3448 (313 BCE, which is exactly 1000 years after the Torah was given on [[Mount Sinai]]). The death of Ezra marked the end of what is called the "Era of [[Prophet|Prophesy]]." See also [[Tenth of Tevet#History|here]].</small>
'''10 Tebet''' (hari puasa)
* 588 SM - Pengepungan kota [[Yerusalem]] oleh tentara Babel
**<small>On the 10th of Tebet, the armies of the [[Babylonian]] emperor [[Nebuchadnezzar]] laid [[siege]] to [[Jerusalem]]. Thirty months later, on [[Tammuz (Hebrew month)|Tammuz]] 17, the city walls were breached, and on [[Av]] 9th of that year, the Holy Temple was destroyed. The Jewish people were then exiled to [[Babylonia]] for 70 years.</small>
'''11 Tebet'''
* 1668 - orang-orang Yahudi diusir dari [[Austria]]
'''17 Tebet''' - (1728) - First New York Synagogue
*<small>In 1654, a group of [[Spanish and Portuguese Jews]] who fled the [[Spanish Inquisition]] held a [[Rosh Hashanah]] service in [[New Amsterdam]], and subsequently founding the congregation [[Shearith Israel]] ("Remnant of Israel"). On this 17th of Tebet in 1728, the congregation purchased a lot in [[Lower Manhattan]] and erected the first synagogue in New York.</small>
'''17 Tebet''' - Death of [[Toldot Aaron]] (1754)
*<small>Rabbi [[Aaron Zelig]] ben Joel Feivush of [[Ostrog]]{{disambiguation needed|date=December 2011}}, [[Russia]], who authored of [[Toldot Aaron]], died on Tebet 17 of the Hebrew year 5515 (1754).</small>
'''17 Tebet''' - (1841) - Death of [[Dubner Maggid|Maggid of Dubna]]
*<small>Tebet 17 is also the [[yahrtzeit]] (anniversary of the death) of Rabbi Yaakov Wolf Krantz (1740–1804), the Maggid (itinerant preacher) of [[Dubna]], who is particularly known for the parables ([[meshalim]]) he employed in his sermons and writings.</small>
'''18 Tebet''' - (469)- [[Huna Mori bar Mor Zutra|Huna]] was killed
*<small>The Exilarch ("Resh Galuta") of Babylonian Jewry, [[Huna Mori bar Mor Zutra]], was executed in [[Pumpeditha]] by order of the Persian emperor on the 18th of Tebet of the Hebrew year 4229 (469 [[Common Era|CE]]). Also killed on that day was [[Rav Mesharshia]] bar Pekod ([he third Jewish leader who was arrested with them, Rab Amemor bar Mor Yenuka, was executed two months later).</small>
'''18 Tebet''' - (1841) - Death of [[B'nei Yissachar]]
*<small>The 18th of Tebet the yahrtzeit (anniversary of the death) of Rabbi Zvi Elimelech Shapiro of Dynov (1783?-1841), author of the [[Chassidic]] work [[B'nei Yissacha]]</small>
'''19 Tebet''' - (1854) - [[Judah Touro]]'s death
*<small>The 19th of Tebet is the [[yahrtzeit]] (anniversary of the death) of American Jewish [[philanthropist]], [[Judah Touro]] (1775–1854).</small>
'''20 Tebet''' - (1204) - Death of [[Maimonides]]
*<small>Rabbi [[Moses ben Maimon]], a famous [[Talmudist]], [[Halacha|Halachist]], [[physician]], [[philosopher]] and communal leader, and known by the acronym "[[Rambam]]" as well as "[[Maimonides]]", died in [[Egypt]] on the 20th of Tebet in 1204.</small>
'''20 Tebet''' - (1483) - Printing of the [[Talmud]]
*<small>The first volume of the [[Babylonian Talmud]], the tractate [[Berakhot (Talmud)|Berachot]], was printed in [[Soncino, Italy]], on the 20th of Tebet of the Hebrew year (1483).</small>
'''22 Tebet''' - (1496) - [[Portugal|Portuguese]] Expulsion
*<small>Four years after the expulsion of the Jews from [[Spain]] (1492), many of whom found refuge in the neighboring country of [[Portugal]], a decree was issued giving all the Jews living in Portugal one year to either convert to [[Christianity]] or leave the country. The Inquisition would last for the next 350 years, persecuting, torturing and burning at the stake thousands of "[[marranos]]" throughout [[Spain]], [[Portugal]] and their colonies for continuing to secretly practice the Jewish faith.</small>
'''22 Tebet''' - (1622) - [[Prague]] rescue
*<small>In the yearbook of the Meisel Synagogue in Prague, the 22nd of Tebet is designated to commemorate the escape of [[Yosef Thein]] from the gallows in the Hebrew year 5383 (1622).</small>
'''24 Tebet''' - (1812) - Death of Rabbi [[Schneur Zalman of Liadi]]
*<small>The founder of [[Chabad]] [[Chassidism]], Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi (1745–1812), died on the eve of the 24th of Tebet, at approximately 10:30 pm, shortly after reciting the [[Havdalah]] prayer, which marks the end of [[Shabbat]].</small>
'''24 Tebet''' - (1837) - [[Galilee earthquake of 1837]]
*<small>A devastating earthquake struck northern [[Israel]], killing four thousand Jews in [[Safed]] and between 700 to 1000 Jews in [[Tiberias]].</small><br
'''24 Tebet''' - (1852) - Mount Sinai Hospital
*<small>The first hospital in America under Jewish direction, [[Mount Sinai Hospital, New York|Mount Sinai Hospital]], was founded in New York on the 24 of Tebet in 1852.</small>
'''25 Tebet''' - (1559) - [[Chovat Halevavot]] published
*<small>Chovat Halvavot, the classical work on Jewish ethics, and who was authored by [[Bahya ibn Paquda|Rabbi Bachya ben Yosef ibn Paquda]] on or before 1161, and translated into [[Hebrew]] from the original [[Arabic]] by the famed translator Rabbi [[Judah idn Tibbon]] in 1167. It was first published on the 25th of Tebet of the Hebrew year 5319 (1559).</small>
'''26 Tebet''' - (1369) - [[Jews]] of [[Sicily]] are required to wear a special badge<br />
'''26 Tebet''' - (1826) - [[Maryland]] adopted a law which allowed Jews to hold [[public office]]
*<small>This law was on condition that the Jew would accept the concept of reward and punishment in the [[afterlife]]. Maryland was founded as an haven for [[Catholics]] in 1634, and in the early days the denial of Christianity was a [[capital crime]] in Maryland. Anyone speaking negatively about [[Blessed Virgin Mary (Roman Catholic)|Mary]] or the [[Apostles]] was subject to a fine or public [[Flagellation|whipping]]. The practice of [[Judaism]] was not legalized in Maryland until 1776, but other restrictions remained in place. It was not until 50 years later that Jews became qualified for public office.</small>
'''27 Tebet''' - (1888) - Death of Rabbi [[Samson Raphael Hirsch]]
*<small>Rabbi [[Samson Raphael Hirsch]] (1808–1888), a [[Talmudist]], scholar, philosopher, prolific author and Rabbi of [[Frankfurt]] am Main died. He is noted for encouraging Orthodox Judaism to German Jewry, convincing thousands to the teachings of the [[Torah]] at a time when assimilationist trends were very high for Jewish life in [[Western Europe]].</small>
'''28 Tebet'''
* 81 SM - Kelompok [[Saduki]] dikeluarkan dari [[Sanhedrin]]
*<small>[[Shimon ben Shetach]] berhasil mengusir sama sekali kelompok [[Saduki]] (sekte yang menolak Torah tak tertulis ("oral Torah") dan otoritas orang bijak/''Sages'') yang pernah mendominasi Sanhedrin, dan menggantikannya dengan murid-muridnya (''Mishnah; murid [[Farisi]] yang setia), pada tanggal 28 Tebet 3680 (tahun Yahudi; = 81 SM).</small>
'''29 Tebet'''
* (2006) - Meninggalnya Rabbi [[Yitzchak Kaduri]]
*<small>Rabbi [[Yitzchak Kaduri]], known in recent years as "the eldest of the [[Kabbalists]]," in [[Israel]], was born in Baghdad, Iraq in 1898. As a youth, he studied under "[[Ben Ish Chai]]" ([[Rabbi Yosef Chaim]] of [[Baghdad]], 1840–1913) and was regarded as an illu ([[child prodigy|prodigy]]) by the sages of the venerable Baghdad Jewish community. In 1922, Rabbi Yitzchak emigrated to [[Palestine]] and joined the ranks of the Jerusalem Kabbalists, even as he earned his living for many years as a [[bookbinder]]. The Rabbi's fame grew over the years and thousands flocked to him to receive his counsel and blessing. He died on the 29th of Tebet of 2006, 108 years old. Hundreds of thousands attended his funeral in [[Jerusalem]].</small>
== Referensi ==
== Lihat pula ==
* Bagian [[Alkitab]] yang berkaitan: [[Zakharia 8]]
== Pranala luar ==
* [http://www.chabad.org/calendar/ This Month in Jewish History]
* [http://www.inner.org/times/tevet/index.php Resources on the Month of Tevet]
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