William Tyndale: Perbedaan revisi

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'''William Tyndale''' (±[[1494]] – [[1536]]) adalah seorang pembaharu [[Protestan]] pada abad ke-16 dan cendekiawan yang menerjemahkan [[Alkitab]] ke [[Bahasa Inggris Baru Awal]] (dalam bentuk baru periode awal) pada masanya. Walaupun ada beberapa kitab dalam Alkitab yang telah diterjemahkan sebagian atau lengkap dalam [[bahasa Inggris Kuno]] pada sekitar abad ke-14, terjemahan Tyndale adalah yang pertama yang diterjemahkan langsung dari naskah dalam bahasa Ibrani dan Yunani, dan yang pertama kalinya dalam sejarah sebagai terjemahan yang diperbanyak menggunakan [[mesin cetak]] sehingga dapat dibagikan secara luas. Pada tahun 1535, Tyndale ditangkap, dipenjarakan di kastil [[Vilvoorde]] di luar [[Brussel (kota)|Brussel]] selama lebih dari setahun, diadili atas tuduhan [[ajaran sesat]], dan dieksekusi dengan cara dibakar.
 
Sebagian besar karya Tyndale pada akhirnya menjadi bagian dari [[Alkitab Versi Raja James]] (atau "Versi Resmi") yang dipublikasikan pada 1611. Alkitab Versi Raja James ini dikerjakan oleh 54 cendekiawan independen, ditujukan untuk merevisi edisi bahasa Inggris yang ada pada saat itu, dan naskahnya diambil sebagian besar dari terjemahan Tyndale.
 
==Riwayat==
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Tyndale wasdilahirkan bornsekitar aroundtahun 1494, possiblydiduga indi onesalah ofsatu thedesa villages neardekat [[Dursley]], [[Gloucestershire]]. WithinDi hiskalangan immediatekerabat familydekatnya, thekeluarga TyndalesTyndale weresaat alsoitu knowndikenal at that period assebagai ''Hychyns'' (Hitchins), anddan itWilliam wasTyndale asmenggunakan nama ''William Hychyns'' thatsewaktu Tyndale was educatedbersekolah atdi Magdalen Hall, Oxford (nowsekarang partbagian ofdari [[Hertford College, Oxford]]). Keluarga Tyndale's familypindah had migrated toke Gloucestershire withindi livingsekitar memorymasa of his birthkelahirannya, quitekemungkinan probably as a result of theakibat ''[[Wars of the Roses]],'' and(Perang itAntar isAgama), knowndan thatdiketahui thebahwa familykeluarganya derivedberasal fromdari [[Northumberland]] buttetapi hadbaru morepindah recently resided inke ''East Anglia''. Tyndale's unclePamannya, Edward, wasadalah receiverpenerima totanah the lands ofdari Lord Berkeley anddan itinilah isfakta thisyang factmembuktikan thatasal providesusul evidencekeluarga of the family's originini. Edward Tyndale isdicatat recorded indalam twodua genealogiessilsilah<ref>[[John Nichol]], Literary Anecdotes, Vol IX: Tindal genealogy; [[Burke's Landed Gentry]], 19th c editions, 'Tyndale of Haling'</ref> assebagai havingsaudara beenlaki-laki the brother ofdari Sir William Tyndale, [[KB (Order of the Bath|KB]]), ofdari Deane, Northumberland, anddan Hockwald, [[Norfolk]], whoyang wasdiangkat knightedmenjadi atbangsawan the(''knighted'') marriagepada ofpernikahan [[Arthur, Prince of Wales]] todengan [[Katherine of Aragon]]. Tyndale'sJadi familykeluarga wasTyndale thereforeadalah derived fromketurunan Baron Adam de Tyndale, aseorang [[penyewa tanah utama (''tenant-in-chief]]'') ofdari [[Raja ''Henry I of England|Henry I]]'' (anddan whoseyang familysejarah historykeluarganya isberhubungan related indengan [[Tyndall]]). Keponakan perempuan William Tyndale, Margaret Tyndale, menikah dengan Rowland Taylor yang dikenal sebagai "The Martyr".
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==Biography==
{{anglicanism}}
Tyndale was born around 1494, possibly in one of the villages near [[Dursley]], [[Gloucestershire]]. Within his immediate family, the Tyndales were also known at that period as Hychyns (Hitchins), and it was as William Hychyns that Tyndale was educated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford (now part of [[Hertford College, Oxford]]). Tyndale's family had migrated to Gloucestershire within living memory of his birth, quite probably as a result of the [[Wars of the Roses]], and it is known that the family derived from [[Northumberland]] but had more recently resided in East Anglia. Tyndale's uncle, Edward, was receiver to the lands of Lord Berkeley and it is this fact that provides evidence of the family's origin. Edward Tyndale is recorded in two genealogies<ref>[[John Nichol]], Literary Anecdotes, Vol IX: Tindal genealogy; [[Burke's Landed Gentry]], 19th c editions, 'Tyndale of Haling'</ref> as having been the brother of Sir William Tyndale, [[Order of the Bath|KB]], of Deane, Northumberland, and Hockwald, [[Norfolk]], who was knighted at the marriage of [[Arthur, Prince of Wales]] to [[Katherine of Aragon]]. Tyndale's family was therefore derived from Baron Adam de Tyndale, a [[tenant-in-chief]] of [[Henry I of England|Henry I]] (and whose family history is related in [[Tyndall]]).
 
Tyndale was admitted to the Degree of [[Bachelor of Arts]] at [[Oxford University]]. In 1512, the same year he became a [[subdeacon]]. He was made [[Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin)|Master of Arts]] in July 1515, three months after he had been ordained into the priesthood{{Fact|date=August 2007}}. The MA degree allowed him to start studying [[theology]], but the official course did not include the study of scripture. This horrified Tyndale, and he organised private groups for teaching and discussing the scriptures{{Fact|date=August 2007}}.
 
 
Following the publication of Tyndale's New Testament, [[Thomas Cardinal Wolsey|Cardinal Wolsey]] condemned Tyndale as a heretic and demanded his arrest{{Fact|date=August 2007}}.
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[[Berkas:Bust Of William Tyndale.jpg|thumb|right|160px|SculptedPahatan Head Ofkepala William Tyndale fromdari gereja [[St Dunstan-in-the-West]] Church, London]]
==Penangkapan==
Tyndale bersembunyi di Hamburg dan terus bekerja. Ia merevisi terjemahan Perjanjian Barunya dan mulai menterjemahkan [[Perjanjian Lama]] serta menulis sejumlah artikel lain. Pada tahun 1530, ia menulis ''The Practyse of Prelates'', menentang perceraian [[Henry VIII of England]] dengan alasan tidak alkitabiah dan suatu taktik dari Kardinal Wolsey untuk mengikat Raja Henry di pengadilan paus. Hal ini menyebabkan kemarahan raja kepadanya dan meminta kaisar [[Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor]] untuk menyerahkan Tyndale dan mengembalikannya ke Inggris.
 
EventuallyAkhirnya, Tyndale wasdikhianati betrayeddan todilaporkan thekepada [[authorities]]penguasa. HeIa wasditangkap seized indi [[AntwerpAntwerpen]] inpada tahun 1535, betrayeddikhianati byoleh Henry Phillips, and held indan theditahan castledi ofkastil [[Vilvoorde]] neardekat [[Brussels]].<ref name="Foxe">John Foxe, ''Actes and Monuments'' (1570), VIII.1228 ([http://www.hrionline.ac.uk/johnfoxe/main/8_1570_1228.jsp Foxe's Book of Martyrs Variorum Edition Online]).</ref>
[[Berkas:Bust Of William Tyndale.jpg|thumb|right|160px|Sculpted Head Of William Tyndale from [[St Dunstan-in-the-West]] Church London]]
 
Tyndale went into hiding, possibly for a time in Hamburg, and carried on working. He revised his New Testament and began translating the [[Old Testament]] and writing various treatises. In 1530, he wrote ''The Practyse of Prelates'', opposing [[Henry VIII of England|Henry VIII]]'s divorce on the grounds that it was unscriptural and was a plot by Cardinal Wolsey to get Henry entangled in the papal courts. This resulted in the king's wrath being directed at him: he asked the emperor [[Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor|Charles V]] to have Tyndale apprehended and returned to England{{Fact|date=August 2007}}.
 
Eventually, Tyndale was betrayed to the [[authorities]]. He was seized in [[Antwerp]] in 1535, betrayed by Henry Phillips, and held in the castle of [[Vilvoorde]] near [[Brussels]].<ref name="Foxe">John Foxe, ''Actes and Monuments'' (1570), VIII.1228 ([http://www.hrionline.ac.uk/johnfoxe/main/8_1570_1228.jsp Foxe's Book of Martyrs Variorum Edition Online]).</ref>
 
==Kematian==
HeIa wasdiadili trieddengan ontuduhan a"sesat" chargepada of heresy intahun 1536 anddan condemneddijatuhi tohukuman deathmati, despitemeskipun [[Thomas Cromwell]]'s intercessionberupaya oncampur histangan behalfuntuk menghalangi. HeDia "wasdicekik strangledsampai tomati deathsementara whilediikat tiedpada attiang the stakekayu, and then his deaddan bodykemudian wasmayatnya burneddibakar". <ref>Michael Farris, "From Tyndale to Madison", 2007, p. 37.</ref> Foxe givesmencatat 6 OctoberOktober assebagai thetanggal dateperingatan of commemorationkematian (left-handkolom tanggal datesebelah columnkiri), buttetapi givestidak nomenulis datetanggal of deathkematiannya (right-handdi kolom tanggal datesebelah columnkanan).<ref name="Foxe"/> TheTradisi traditionalperingatannya datejatuh ofpada commemoration istanggal 6 OctoberOktober, buttetapi recordscatatan of Tyndale'spenjaranya imprisonmentmemberi suggestkesan thebahwa datekematiannya mightmungkin havebeberapa beenminggu somesebelum weekstanggal earlieritu.<ref>{{citeweb|url=http://www.tyndale.org/TSJ/25/arblaster.html|title=An Error of Dates?|author= Arblaster, Paul|year=2002|accessdate=2007-10-07}}</ref>
 
Kata-kata terakhir Tyndale's finalyang words, spokendiucapkannya "atpada thetiang stakedengan withsemangat asungguh-sungguh ferventdan zeal,suara andyang a loud voicekeras", weredilaporkan reported asadalah "LordTuhan! OpenBukalah themata KingRaja of England's eyes.Inggris!"<ref>John Foxe, Actes and Monuments (1570), VIII.1229 ([http://www.hrionline.ac.uk/johnfoxe/main/8_1570_1229.jsp Foxe's Book of Martyrs Variorum Edition Online]).</ref>
 
==PrintedKarya workscetak==
Tyndale adalah penulis dan penterjemah yang aktif, meskipun yang paling terkenal dari karyanya adalah Alkitab terjemahannya. Karya-karya Tyndale tidak hanya berfokus pada kehidupan beragama, melainkan juga diarahkan ke arena politik.
Most well known for his translation of the Bible, Tyndale was an active writer and translator. Not only did Tyndale's works focus on the way in which religion should be carried out, but were also greatly keyed towards the political arena.
<blockquote>
"Mereka telah menetapkan bahwa tidak seorangpun boleh melihat Alkitab, sebelum orang itu belajar ilmu kafir 8 atau 9 tahun lamanya dan diperlengkapi dengan prinsip-prinsip yang salah, dengan demikian orang itu akan ditutup sama sekali dari pemahaman Alkitab."
"They have ordained that no man shall look on the Scripture, until he be noselled in heathen learning eight or nine years and armed with false principles, with which he is clean shut out of the understanding of the Scripture."
</blockquote>
InMenjawab responsekritik todari a critical [[John Bell, (Bishop ofuskup Worcester)|John Bell]]{{Fact|date=December 2007}}, Tyndale echoedmenyuarakan lagi thissentimen sentimentini
<blockquote>
"IfJika GodAllah sparememberikan myusia lifekepadaku, eresebelum manybanyak yearstahun Iaku willakan causemenyebabkan aseorang boyanak thatyang drivethmembajak theladang ploughuntuk shalltahu knowlebih morebanyak oftentang theAlkitab Scripturedaripada than thou doestengkau."<ref>Foxe, Acts and Monuments</ref>
</blockquote>
{| class="wikitable"
|-
! Tahun cetakan
! Year Printed
! NameNama of WorkKarya
! Tempat Penerbitan
! Place of Publication
! Penerbit
! Publisher
|-
| 1525
| TheTerjemahan New[[Perjanjian TestamentBaru]] ('''Translation''') (incompletetidak lengkap)
| [[Cologne]]
|
|-
| 1526*
| TheTerjemahan NewPerjanjian TestamentBaru ('''Translation''') (firstedisi cetak fulllengkap printedpertama editiondalam inbahasa EnglishInggris)
| [[Worms]]
|
|-
| 1526
| ''A compendious introduccion, prologe or preface vnto the pistle off Paul to the Romayns''<br>("Pendahuluan, Prolog atau Pengantar lengkap untuk surat Paulus kepada jemaat di Roma")
|
|
| 1528
| The parable of the wicked mammon
| [[AntwerpAntwerpen]]
|
|-
|-
| *
|Karya-karya ini dicetak lebih dari sekali, biasanya ditandai oleh revisi atau cetak-ulang. Namun, edisi tahun 1525 dicetak sebagai quarto yang tidak lengkap dan kemudian dicetak pada tahun 1526 lengkap sebagai octavo.
| These works were printed more than once, usually signifying a revision or reprint. However the 1525 edition was printed as an incomplete quarto and was then reprinted in 1526 as a complete octavo.
|-
| **
|Karya-karya Theseini worksadalah werecetakan reprintsulang ofdari terjemahan Tyndale's earlieryang translationsmula-mula, reviseddirevisi fordengan ejaan modern-spelling.
|}
 
==LegacyWarisan==
InDalam translatingterjemahan the BibleAlkitabnya, Tyndale introducedmemperkenalkan newkosa wordskata intobaru theke dalam [[Englishbahasa languageInggris]], anddan manybanyak wereyang subsequentlykemudian useddipakai indalam the[[Alkitab KingVersi JamesRaja BibleJames]]:
*''[[Jehovah]]'' (fromtransliterasi adari transliteratedkonstruksi [[Hebrewbahasa language|HebrewIbrani]] construction in thedi [[OldPerjanjian TestamentLama]]; composedyang fromterdiri thedari [[Tetragrammaton]] YHWH anddan thehuruf-huruf vowelshidup ofdari kata ''[[Names of God in Judaism#Other names of God|adonai]]'': YaHoWaH)
*''[[Passover]]'' (asnama thehari nameRaya forYahudi, the Jewish holiday,[[Paskah PesachYahudi|Pesakh oratau Pesah]]),
*''[[Atonement]] (= at + onement), whichyang goeslebih beyonddari meresekedar "reconciliationrekonsiliasi" tountuk meanbermakna "to unitemenyatukan" oratau "to covermenutupi", whichyang springsmuncul fromdari thehari Hebrewraya Yahudi [[Yom Kippur|kippur]],; thedalam Old[[Perjanjian Testament version ofLama]] ''kippur'' beingberarti themenutupi coveringpalang of doorpostspintu withdengan blooddarah, oratau "Day of Atonement" (Hari Penebusan).
*''[[scapegoat]]'' (thekambing goatyang thatmenanggung bearsdosa thedan sinskesalahan andumat iniquities of the people indalam [[LeviticusKitab Imamat]],[[Imamat Chapter16| pasal 16]])
 
Ia juga memperkenalkan banyak frasa bahasa Inggris terkenal yaitu:
He also coined such familiar phrases as:
*''let there be light''
*''the powers that be''
*''my brother's keeper''
*''live and move and have our being''
*''fight the good fight''
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Some of the new words and phrases introduced by Tyndale did not sit well with the hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church, using words like 'Overseer' rather than 'Bishop' and 'Elder' rather than 'Priest', and (very controversially), 'congregation' rather than 'Church' and 'love' rather than 'charity'. Tyndale contended (citing [[Erasmus]]) that the Greek New Testament did not support the traditional Roman Catholic readings.
 
 
Tyndale is also honored in the [[Calendar of Saints (Lutheran)|Calendar of Saints]] of the [[Evangelical Lutheran Church in America]] as a translator and martyr the same day.
-->
==Lihat pula==
*[[Alkitab Versi Tyndale]]
 
== See also Referensi==
{{reflist|2}}
 
==Pustaka tambahan==
*[[Tyndale Bible]]
*AdaptedAdaptasi fromdari J.I. Mombert, "[http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/encyc/encyc12/htm/ii.xv.x.htm Tyndale, William]," in Philip Schaff, Johann Jakob Herzog, et al, eds., ''The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge,'' New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1904, reprintedditayangkan online by theoleh [http://www.ccel.org/ Christian Classics Ethereal Library]. Additional references areDengan availablepustaka theretambahan.
*[[The Tyndale Society]]
*David Daniell, ''William Tyndale'', [[Oxford Dictionary of National Biography]], Oxford University Press, 2004
*[[Tyndale House]]
*William Tyndale, ''The New Testament'', (Worms, 1526; Reprinted in original spelling and pagination by [[British Library|The British Library]], 2000 ISBN 0-7123-4664-3)
 
==Notes==
{{reflist}}
 
==Referensi lebih lanjut==
*Adapted from J.I. Mombert, "[http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/encyc/encyc12/htm/ii.xv.x.htm Tyndale, William]," in Philip Schaff, Johann Jakob Herzog, et al, eds., ''The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge,'' New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1904, reprinted online by the [http://www.ccel.org/ Christian Classics Ethereal Library]. Additional references are available there.
*David Daniell, ''William Tyndale'', [[Oxford Dictionary of National Biography]], Oxford University Press, 2004
*William Tyndale, ''The New Testament'', (Worms, 1526; Reprinted in original spelling and pagination by [[British Library|The British Library]], 2000 ISBN 0-7123-4664-3)
*William Tyndale, ''The New Testament'', (Antwerp, 1534; Reprinted in modern English spelling, complete with Prologues to the books and marginal notes, with the original Greek paragraphs, by Yale University Press, 1989 ISBN 0-300-04419-4)
*Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge
*{{Schaff-Herzog}}
*Paul Arblaster, Gergely Juhász, Guido Latré (eds) ''Tyndale's Testament'' hardback ISBN 2-503-51411-1 Brepols 2002
*Day, John T. "Sixteenth-Century British Nondramatic Writers" ''Dictionary of Literary Biography'' 1.132 1993 :296-311
*Brian Moynahan, ''God's Bestseller: William Tyndale, Thomas More, and the Writing of the English Bible---A Story of Martyrdom and Betrayal'' St. Martin's Press, 2003
* John Piper, Desiring God Ministries, "Why William Tyndale Lived and Died" [http://christianity.com/Christian%20Foundations/The%20Essentials/11576364/page1/]
 
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== Pranala luar ==
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