Kimia organik: Perbedaan revisi

3.885 bita dihapus ,  9 tahun yang lalu
hapus yg inggris
(+ gbr, hapus info tak jelas)
(hapus yg inggris)
== Sejarah ==
Kimia organik sebagai suatu ilmu secara umum disetujui telah dimulai pada tahun [[1828]] dengan [[sintesis]] [[urea]] organik oleh [[Friedrich Woehler]], yang secara tidak sengaja menguapkan larutan [[sianat|amonium sianat]] NH<sub>4</sub>OCN.
<!--
==Ciri-ciri zat organik ==
 
The reason that there are so many carbon compounds is that carbon has the ability to form many carbon chains of different lengths, and rings of different sizes ([[catenation]]). Many carbon compounds are extremely sensitive to [[heat]], and generally decompose below 300°C. They tend to be less [[soluble]] in [[water]] compared to many inorganic salts. In contrast to such salts, they tend to be much more soluble in organic [[solvent]]s such as [[ether]] or [[alcohol]]. Organic compounds are [[covalent bond| covalently bonded]].
 
==Organic nomenclature==
[[Organic nomenclature]] is the system established for naming and grouping [[organic compound]]s.
 
===Aliphatic compounds===
[[Aliphatic]] compounds are organic molecules that do not contain aromatic systems.
 
[[Hydrocarbon]]s - [[Alkane]]s - [[Alkene]]s - [[diene|Dienes or Alkadienes]] - [[Alkyne]]s - [[Halogenoalkane]]s
 
===Aromatic compounds===
[[Aromatic]] compounds are organic molecules that contain one or more aromatic ring system.
 
[[Benzene]] - [[Toluene]] - [[Xylene]] - [[Aniline]] - [[Phenol]] - [[Acetophenone]] - [[Benzonitrile]] - [[Halogenoarene|Halogenoarenes]] - [[Naphthalene]] - [[Anthracene]] - [[Phenanthrene]] - [[Benzopyrene]] - [[Coronene]] - [[Azulene]] - [[Biphenyl]]
 
===Heterocyclic compounds===
Heterocyclic compounds are cyclic organic molecules whose ring(s) contain at least one [[heteroatom]]. These heteroaoms can include oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur.
 
[[Pyridine]] - [[Pyrrole]] - [[Thiophene]] - [[Furan]]
 
===[[Functional groups]]===
[[Alcohol]]s - [[Mercaptans]] - [[Ether]]s - [[Aldehyde]]s - [[Ketone]]s - [[Carboxylic acid]]s - [[Ester]]s - [[Carbohydrate]]s - [[Alicyclic compound]]s - [[Amide]]s - [[Amine]]s - [[Lipid]]s - [[Nitrile]]s
 
===Polymers===
 
[[Polymers]] are a special kind of molecule. Generally considered "large" molecules, polymers get their reputation regarding size because they are molecules that consist of multiple smaller segments. The segments could be chemically identical, which would make such a molecule a homopolymer. Or the segments could be vary in chemical structure, which would make that molecule a heteropolymer. Polymers are a subset of "macromolecules" which is just a classification for all molecules that are considered large.
 
Polymers can be organic or inorganic. Commonly-encountered polymers are usually organic (e.g., [[polyethylene]], [[polypropylene]], [[Plexiglass]], etc.). But inorganic polymers (e.g., [[silicone]]) are also familiar to everyday items.
 
==Determining the molecular structure of an organic compound==
 
Currently, there exist several methods for characterizing an organic compound. In general usage are (in alphabetical order):
 
* [[Crystallography]]: This is the most precise method; however, it is very difficult to grow crystals of sufficient size and high quality to get a clear picture, so it remains a secondary form of analysis.
* [[Elemental Analysis]]: A destructive method used to determine the elemental composition of a molecule.
* [[Infrared spectroscopy]]: Chiefly used to determine the presence (or absence) of certain [[functional groups]].
* [[Mass spectrometry]]: Used to determine the [[molecular weight]] of a compound and the fragmentation pattern.
* [[Nuclear magnetic resonance|Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry]]
* [[UV/VIS spectroscopy]]: Used to determine degree of conjugation in the system
 
See [[Analytical chemistry]] for additional methods.
 
==Organic reactions==
Most of the time spent in an introductory kimia organik class involves learning the processes used to manufacture organic molecules. For details, see [[Organic reaction]]
 
==See also==
*[[List_of_publications_in_chemistry#Kimia organik| Important publications in kimia organik]]
*[[Chemical formula]]
*[[Structural formula]]
*[[Skeletal formula]]
-->
 
== Pranala luar ==