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Perubahan

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* Edward Gibbon, [http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/g/gibbon/edward/g43d/chapter51.html ''History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire''] Chapter 51
* Fred Donner, [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/donner.html ''The Early Islamic Conquests''] Chapter 6
* Hugh Kennedy, ''The Great Arab Conquests: How the Spread of Islam Changed the World We Live in'' (2007) ISBN 0-306-81585-0
 
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