Jean Charles Léonard de Sismondi: Perbedaan antara revisi

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'''Jean Charles Léonard de Sismondi''' (juga dikenal sebagai '''Jean Charles Leonard Simonde de Sismondi''') ({{IPA-fr|ʒɑ̃ ʃaʁl leɔnaʁ də sismɔ̃di|lang}}; {{lahirmati||9|5|1773||25|6|1842}}),<ref name="Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2004">{{cite encyclopedia |url=http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Jean_Charles_Leonard_Simonde_de_Sismondi.aspx|title=Jean Charles Léonard Simonde de Sismondi |encyclopedia=Encyclopedia of World Biography |year=2004 |access-date=2016-07-21}}</ref> yang bernama asli Simonde, adalah seorang [[sejarawan]] dan [[ekonom politik]] Swiss, yang dikenal karena berkayra pada [[Sejarah Prancis]] dan [[Sejarah Italia]], dan gagasan-gagasan ekonominya. ''Nouveaux principes d'économie politique, ou de la richesse dans ses rapports avec la population'' (1819) buatannya mewakili kritik [[liberalisme|liberal]] pertama terhadap ekonomi laissez-faire.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Stewart |first1=Ross E. |title=Sismondi's Forgotten Ethical Critique of Early Capitalism |journal=Journal of Business Ethics |date=1984 |volume=3 |issue=3 |pages=227–234|doi=10.1007/BF00382924 |s2cid=154967384 }}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Spiegel |first1=Henry William |title=The Growth of Economic Thought |url=https://archive.org/details/growthofeconomic0000spie_r1d4 |date=1991 |publisher=Duke University Press |pages=302–303[https://archive.org/details/growthofeconomic0000spie_r1d4/page/302 302]–303}}</ref> Ia adalah salah satu advokat pionir dari asuransi pengangguran, pembayaran orang sakit, pajak progresif, pengaturan jam kerja dan skema pensiun.<ref name="Ekins">{{cite book |last1=Ekins |first1=Paul |last2=Max-Neef |first2=Manfred |title=Real Life Economics |date=2006 |publisher=Routledge |pages=91–93}}</ref><ref name="Murray">{{cite book |last1=Murray |first1=Christopher John |title=Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era, 1760-1850, Volume 2 |date=2004 |publisher=Taylor & Francis |pages=1054–1055}}</ref> Ia juga orang pertama yang mencetuskan istilah ''[[proletariat]]'' untuk menyebut kelas pekerja yang dibentuk di bawah kapitalisme,<ref name="Ekins" /><ref>{{cite book |last1=Ekelund Jr |first1=Robert B. |last2=Hébert |first2=Robert F. |title=A History of Economic Theory and Method: Fifth Edition |date=2006 |publisher=Waveland Press |page=226}}</ref> dan diskusinya soal ''mieux value'' mengantisipasi konsep [[nilai surplus]].<ref name="Lutz">{{cite book |last1=Lutz |first1=Mark A. |title=Economics for the Common Good: Two Centuries of Economic Thought in the Humanist Tradition |date=2002 |publisher=Routledge |pages=55–57}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=McCracken |first1=Harlan Linneus |title=Value Theory and Business Cycles |date=2001 |publisher=Minerva Group |page=22}}</ref> Menurut [[Gareth Stedman Jones]], "sebagian besar tulisan Sismondi menjadi bagian dari repertoir standar dari kritisisme [[sosialis]] terhadap industri modern,"<ref name="Gareth">{{cite book |author1=Stedman Jones, Gareth |editor1-last=Aprile |editor1-first=Sylvie |editor2-last=Bensimon |editor2-first=Fabrice |title=La France et l'Angleterre au XIXe siècle. Échanges, représentations, comparaisons |chapter=Saint-Simon and the Liberal origins of the Socialist critique of Political Economy |date=2006 |publisher=Créaphis |pages=21–47}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|author1=Nicolas Eyguesier |title=Marx, primitive accumulation, and the impact of Sismondi|doi=10.1080/09672567.2018.1523943|date=2018 |journal=The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought|volume=25|number=5|pages=833-858}}</ref> memberikannya komentar kritis dalam ''[[Manifesto Komunis]]''.
 
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