Pengobatan dan penanganan COVID-19: Perbedaan revisi

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[[File:Covid-19 San Salvatore 09.jpg|thumb|right|220px|Seorang [[Anestesiologi | dokter anestesi]] yang kelelahan di [[Pesaro]], [[Italia]], Maret 2020]]
 
Sejak bulan Februari 2021, di [[Amerika Serikat]], [[remdesivir]] memiliki persetujuan FDA untuk pasien COIVD-19 tertentu, dan ada [[Otorisasi Penggunaan Darurat | Otorisasi Penggunaan Darurat]] untuk penggunaan [[baricitinib]], [[bamlanivimab]], [[bamlanivimab/etesevimab]], dan [[casirivimab]]/[[imdevimab]].<ref>{{cite web|date=2021-02-19|title=COVID-19 Frequently Asked Questions: Drugs (Medicines)|url=https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19/covid-19-frequently-asked-questions#drugs|url-status=live|access-date=24 Maret 2021|website=U.S. Food and Drug Administration}}</ref> Sementara di [[Uni Eropa]], penggunaan [[deksametason]] telah didukung, dan [[remdesivir]] memiliki [[Izin pemasaran bersyarat]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Treatments and vaccines for COVID-19: authorised medicines|url=https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/human-regulatory/overview/public-health-threats/coronavirus-disease-covid-19/treatments-vaccines/treatments-vaccines-covid-19-authorised-medicines|url-status=live|access-date=24 Maret 2021|website=European Medicines Agency}}</ref> Penggunaan [[Deksametason|deksametason]] memiliki manfaat klinis untuk mengobati COVID-19, sebagaimana ditentukan berdasarkan hasil uji coba terkontrol secara acak.<ref name="ausguidelines">{{cite web |url=https://app.magicapp.org/#/guideline/L4Q5An/section/L0OPkj |title=Australian guidelines for the clinical care of people with COVID-19 |website=National COVID-19 Clinical Evidence Taskforce|publisher=National COVID-19 Clinical Evidence Taskforce|access-date=24 Maret 2021}}</ref><ref name="Rizk">{{cite journal | last1=Rizk | first1=John G. | last2=Kalantar-Zadeh | first2=Kamyar | last3=Mehra | first3=Mandeep R. | last4=Lavie | first4=Carl J. | last5=Rizk | first5=Youssef | last6=Forthal | first6=Donald N. | title=Pharmaco-Immunomodulatory Therapy in COVID-19 | journal=Drugs | publisher=Springer | volume=80 | issue=13 | date=21 Juli 2020| issn=0012-6667 | doi=10.1007/s40265-020-01367-z | pages=1267–1292| pmid=32696108 | pmc=7372203 | doi-access=free }} Diakses tanggal 24 Maret 2021.</ref> Pada awal penelitian, remdesivir memiliki manfaat dalam mencegah [[kematian]] dan memperpendek durasi penyakit, namun hal ini tidak didukung berdasarkan uji coba berikutnya.<ref name="BMJLivingReview" />
 
Beberapa [[obat antivirus]] COVID-19 sedang diteliti, namun belum ada obat yang terbukti efektif mematikan virus berdasarkan uji coba terkontrol acak yang sudah dipublikasikan.<ref name="sanders">{{cite journal|vauthors=Sanders JM, Monogue ML, Jodlowski TZ, Cutrell JB|date=April 2020|title=Pharmacologic Treatments for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review|journal=JAMA|volume=323|issue=18|pages=1824–36|doi=10.1001/jama.2020.6019|pmid=32282022|doi-access=free|s2cid=215752785}} Dikases tanggal 24 Maret 2021.</ref> Keamanan dan efektivitas [[plasma sembuh]] sebagai pilihan dalam pengobatan juga masih memerlukan penelitian lebih lanjut.<ref>{{cite journal|vauthors=Chai KL, Valk SJ, Piechotta V, Kimber C, Monsef I, Doree C, Wood EM, Lamikanra AA, Roberts DJ, McQuilten Z, So-Osman C, Estcourt LJ, Skoetz N | display-authors=6 |date=Oktober 2020|title=Convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin for people with COVID-19: a living systematic review|journal=Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews|volume=10|pages=CD013600|doi=10.1002/14651858.CD013600.pub3 }} Diakses tanggal 24 Maret 2021.</ref> Percobaan lain sedang dilakukan, apakah obat-obatan dapat digunakan secara efektif untuk melawan reaksi kekebalan tubuh terhadap infeksi [[SARS-CoV-2]].<ref name="sanders" /><ref name="McCreary">{{cite journal|vauthors=McCreary EK, Pogue JM|date=April 2020|title=Coronavirus Disease 2019 Treatment: A Review of Early and Emerging Options|journal=Open Forum Infectious Diseases|volume=7|issue=4|pages=ofaa105|doi=10.1093/ofid/ofaa105|pmc=7144823|pmid=32284951}}</ref> Penelitian untuk menemukan pengobatan yang potensial telah dimulai sejak Januari 2020,<ref>{{cite news|date=17 Februari 2020|title=Chinese doctors using plasma therapy on coronavirus, WHO says 'very valid' approach|newspaper=Reuters|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-health-hospital-idUSKBN20B1M6|url-status=live|access-date=24 Maret 2021|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200304173709/https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-health-hospital-idUSKBN20B1M6|archive-date=24 Maret 2021}}</ref> dan beberapa [[antivirus|obat antivirus]] masih sedang dalam uji klinis.<ref name="Reut_NIH_Moderna_3months">{{cite news|last1=Steenhuysen|first1=Julie|last2=Kelland|first2=Kate|date=24 January 2020|title=With Wuhan virus genetic code in hand, scientists begin work on a vaccine|work=[[Reuters]]|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-health-vaccines-idUSKBN1ZN2J8|url-status=live|access-date=24 Maret 2021|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200125203723/https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-health-vaccines-idUSKBN1ZN2J8|archive-date=24 Maret 2021|name-list-style=vanc}}</ref><ref name="clinicaltrialsarena">{{cite web|last=Duddu|first=Praveen|date=19 Februari 2020|title=Coronavirus outbreak: Vaccines/drugs in the pipeline for Covid-19|url=https://www.clinicaltrialsarena.com/analysis/coronavirus-mers-cov-drugs/|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200219184512/https://www.clinicaltrialsarena.com/analysis/coronavirus-mers-cov-drugs/|archive-date=24 Maret 2021|work=clinicaltrialsarena.com|name-list-style=vanc}}</ref> Menemukan dan mengembangkan obat baru masih dilakukan hingga tahun 2021,<ref>{{cite journal|vauthors=Lu H|date=March 2020|title=Drug treatment options for the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV)|journal=Bioscience Trends|volume=14|issue=1|pages=69–71|doi=10.5582/bst.2020.01020|pmid=31996494|doi-access=free}}</ref> dan beberapa obat yang telah diuji sudah disetujui untuk kegunaan lain atau sudah dalam tahap pengujian lebih lanjut.<ref name="LiDeClerq">{{cite journal|vauthors=Li G, De Clercq E|date=March 2020|title=Therapeutic options for the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)|journal=Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery|volume=19|issue=3|pages=149–150|doi=10.1038/d41573-020-00016-0|doi-access=free}} Diakses tanggal 24 Maret 2021</ref> Pengobatan [[antivirus]] dapat diberikan pada pasien dengan tingkat penyakit yang parah.<ref name="NatureDale Fisher & David Heymann" /> Dan WHO merekomendasikan para sukarelawan untuk mengambil bagian dalam uji coba keefektifan dan keamanan perawatan yang potensial.<ref name="ThomReut_notreatment_20200205">{{cite news|last1=Nebehay|first1=Stephanie|last2=Kelland|first2=Kate|last3=Liu|first3=Roxanne|date=5 Februari 2020|title=WHO: 'no known effective' treatments for new coronavirus|agency=[[Thomson Reuters]]|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-health-treatments-who-idUSKBN1ZZ1M6|url-status=live|access-date=24 Maret 2021|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200205155653/https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-health-treatments-who-idUSKBN1ZZ1M6|archive-date=24 Maret 2021|name-list-style=vanc}}</ref>
 
Melakukan terapi [[Antibodi monoklonal|antibodi monoklonal]], [[bamlanivimab]]/[[etesevimab]] dinyatakan dapat mengurangi jumlah pasien rawat inap, mengurangi jumlah kunjungan ruang gawat darurat dan atau mengurangi jumlah kematian sekitar 60-70%.<ref name="FDA PR 20210209">{{cite press release|title=FDA Authorizes Monoclonal Antibodies for Treatment of COVID-19|website=U.S. [[Food and Drug Administration]] (FDA)|date=10 Februari 2021|url=https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-fda-authorizes-monoclonal-antibodies-treatment-covid-19-0|access-date=24 Maret 2021}} {{PD-notice}}</ref><ref name="FDA PR 20201121">{{cite press release|title=Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Authorizes Monoclonal Antibodies for Treatment of COVID-19|website=U.S. [[Food and Drug Administration]] (FDA)|date=21 November 2020|url=https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-fda-authorizes-monoclonal-antibodies-treatment-covid-19|access-date=21 November 2020}} {{PD-notice}}</ref> Kedua [[obat kombinasi]] tersebut memiliki [[izin penggunaan darurat]] oleh [[Food and Drug Administration]] Amerika Serikat.<ref name="FDA PR 20210209" /><ref name="FDA PR 20201121" />
 
Mengonsumsi [[obat bebas]] seperti [[parasetamol]] atau [[ibuprofen]], minum cairan, dan istirahat yang cukup, dapat membantu meringankan gejala yang muncul.<ref name="AutoDW-63">{{cite web |url=https://www.webmd.com/lung/coronavirus |title=Coronavirus |work=WebMD |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200201075444/https://www.webmd.com/lung/coronavirus |archive-date=24 Maret 2021|access-date=24 Maret 2021}}</ref><ref name="CDC Prevention">{{cite web |url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/prevention-treatment.html |title=Prevention & Treatment |date=15 Febsruari 2020|work=U.S. [[Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]] (CDC) |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191215193934/https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/about/prevention.html |archive-date=24 Maret 2021|access-date=24 Maret 2021}} {{PD-notice}}</ref> Merujuk pada tingkat keparahan pasien, penggunaan [[terapi oksigen]] dan [[terapi intravena| cairan intravena]] memungkinkan untuk dilakukan.<ref name="BMJ2020Best">{{cite web |url=https://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-gb/3000165?q=Coronavirus,%202019%20novel&c=suggested |title=Overview of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)—Summary of relevant conditions |work=[[The BMJ]] |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200131054900/https://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-gb/3000165?q=Coronavirus,%202019%20novel&c=suggested |archive-date=24 Maret 2021|access-date=24 Maret 2021}}</ref> Beberapa obat yang dianggap ampuh untuk mengobati, namun dalam penelitian, ternyata tidak efektif dan bahkan tidak aman untuk dikonsumsi pasien, beberapa obat tersebut termasuk diantaranya; [[baloxavir marboxil]], [[favipiravir]], [[lopinavir]] / [[ritonavir]], [[ruxolitinib]], [[chloroquineklorokuin]], [[hydroxychloroquinehidroksiklorokuin]], [[interferon beta-1a|interferon β-1a]], dan juga [[colchicineKolkisina|kolkisin]].<ref name=":1" />
 
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