Pengguna:Agung.karjono/Bak pasir/TEMP2: Perbedaan revisi

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==[[Prinsip Aufbau]]==
 
{{redirect|Penumpukan atom|penyebaran senjata nuklir|Proliferasi nuklir}}
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[[File:Aufbau animated.png|thumb|288x288px|ElectronsElektron occupymenempati thekelopak shellsdan and sub-shells of ansubkelopak atom insesuai approximatedengan accordance with theprinsip aufbau principle.]]
 
The '''aufbau principle''', from the German ''Aufbauprinzip'' ('''building-up principle'''), also called the '''aufbau rule''', states that in the [[ground state]] of an atom or ion, [[electron]]s fill [[atomic orbital]]s of the lowest available [[energy level]]s before occupying higher levels. For example, the 1s subshell is filled before the 2s subshell is occupied. In this way, the electrons of an [[atom]] or [[ion]] form the most stable [[electron configuration]] possible. An example is the configuration 1s<sup>2</sup> 2s<sup>2</sup> 2p<sup>6</sup> 3s<sup>2</sup> 3p<sup>3</sup> for the [[phosphorus]] atom, meaning that the 1s subshell has 2 electrons, and so on.
'''Prinsip aufbau''', dari bahasa Jerman ''Aufbauprinzip'' (prinsip membangun), juga disebut '''aturan aufbau''', menyatakan bahwa [[elektron]] dalam sebuah atom atau ion pada [[keadaan dasar]] akan mengisi [[orbital atom]] dengan [[tingkat energi]] terendah yang tersedia sebelum menempati tingkat energi yang lebih tinggi.
 
The '''aufbau principle''', from the German ''Aufbauprinzip'' ('''building-up principle'''), also called the '''aufbau rule''', states that in the [[ground state]] of an atom or ion, [[electron]]s fill [[atomic orbital]]s of the lowest available [[energy level]]s before occupying higher levels. For example, the 1s subshell is filled before the 2s subshell is occupied. In this way, the electrons of an [[atom]] or [[ion]] form the most stable [[electron configuration]] possible. An example is the configuration 1s<sup>2</sup> 2s<sup>2</sup> 2p<sup>6</sup> 3s<sup>2</sup> 3p<sup>3</sup> for the [[phosphorus]] atom, meaning that the 1s subshell has 2 electrons, and so on.
 
Electron behavior is elaborated by other principles of [[atomic physics]], such as [[Hund's rule]] and the [[Pauli exclusion principle]]. Hund's rule asserts that if [[Degenerate orbitals|multiple orbitals of the same energy]] are available, electrons will occupy different orbitals singly before any are occupied doubly. If double occupation does occur, the Pauli exclusion principle requires that electrons which occupy the same orbital must have different [[spin (physics)|spin]]s (+1/2 and −1/2).