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[[Image:Baroque_Rubens_Assumption-of-Virgin-3.jpg|thumb|250px|The Assumption of the Virgin Mary has been a subject of [[Blessed Virgin Mary (Roman Catholic)|veneration]], [[Marian doctrines of the Catholic Church| doctrine]] and [[Roman Catholic Marian art| art]] for centuries. This painting is by [[Rubens]], 1626.]]
The [[Roman Catholic Church]] teaches as [[Dogma (Roman Catholic)|dogma]] that the [[Mary (mother of Jesus)|Virgin Mary]], "having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory."<ref>Pope Pius XII: [ "''Munificentissimus Deus'' - Defining the Dogma of the Assumption"], par. 44. Vatican, November 1, 1950 </ref> This means that Mary was transported into Heaven with her body and soul united. The [[feast day]] recognizing Mary's passage into Heaven is celebrated as '''The Solemnity of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary''' by Roman Catholics. This doctrine was [[dogmatic definition|dogmatically and infallibly defined]] by [[Pope Pius XII]] on [[1 November]] [[1950]] in his [[Apostolic Constitution]] ''[[Munificentissimus Deus]]''. The Assumption of Mary into heaven is also taught by the [[Eastern Orthodox Church]] and the [[Oriental Orthodox Churches|Oriental and Coptic Orthodox Churches]], where it is known as the [[Dormition of the Theotokos]]. In those denominations that observe it, the Assumption is commonly celebrated on [[August 15]], a [[Holy Day of Obligation]] in [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholicism]].
In his [[August 15]], [[2004]] homily given at [[Lourdes]], [[Pope John Paul II]] quoted John 14:3 from the Bible as a scriptural basis for understanding the dogma of the Assumption of Mary, where Christ, in his Last Supper discourses, explained that "When I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and will take you to myself, that where I am, there you may be also". According to Catholic theology, Mary is the pledge of the fulfillment of Christ's promise. However, many theologians disagree with this interpretation of Scripture, and believe that Christ was speaking about his preparation of Calvary and the crucifixion for the remission of sins. <ref>Homily of the Holy Father John Paul II, August 15, 2004, Apostolic Pilgrimage to Lourdes, Women for Faith and Family,</ref>
[[Image:129-4.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Coptic icon of the Dormition of Our Lady]]
Although the Assumption was only relatively recently defined as [[dogma]], and in spite of a statement by [[Epiphanius of Salamis]] in <small>AD</small> [[377]] that no one knew of the eventual fate of Mary<ref>Epiphanius, Panarion, Haer. 78.10-11, 23</ref>, accounts of the assumption of Mary into heaven have circulated since at least the 5th century. The Roman Catholic Church itself interprets chapter 12 of the [[Book of Revelation]] as referring to it. The earliest known narrative is the so-called ''Liber Requiei Mariae'' (''The Book of Mary's Repose''), a narrative which survives intact only in an [[Ge'ez language|Ethiopic]] translation.<ref>Stephen J. Shoemaker, [ ''Ancient Traditions of the Virgin Mary's Dormition and Assumption''] (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002, 2006). A complete translation of this earliest text appears at pp. 290-350</ref> Probably composed by the 4th century, this early Christian apocryphal narrative may be as early as the 3rd century. Also quite early are the very different traditions of the [ ''"Six Books" Dormition narratives'']. The earliest versions of this apocryphon are preserved by several [[Syriac language|Syriac]] manuscripts of the 5th and 6th centuries, although the text itself probably belongs to the 4th century.<ref>William Wright, [ ''"The Departure of my Lady Mary from this World,"''] ''The Journal of Sacred Literature and Biblical Record'', 6 (1865): 417-48 and 7 (1865): 108-60. See also Agnes Smith Lewis, ed., Apocrypha Syriaca, Studia Sinaitica, XI (London: C. J. Clay and Sons, 1902).</ref>
Later apocrypha based on these earlier texts include the [ ''De Obitu S. Dominae''], attributed to [[John the Theologian|St. John]], a work probably from around the turn of the 6th century that is a summary of the "Six Books" narrative. The story also appears in [ ''De Transitu Virginis''], a late 5th century work ascribed to [[Melito of Sardis|St. Melito of Sardis]] that presents a theologically redacted summary of the traditions in the ''Liber Requiei Mariae''. The ''Transitus Mariae'' tells the story of the apostles being transported by white clouds to the deathbed of Mary, each from the town where he was preaching at the hour.
The ''[[Decretum Gelasianum]]'' in the 490s declared some ''transitus Mariae'' literature apocryphal.
[[Image:Assumptiongirdle.jpg|thumb|left|200px|St Thomas receiving the Virgin Mary's girdle]]
An Armenian letter attributed to [[Dionysus the Areopagite]] also mentions the event, although this is a much later work, written sometime after the 6th century. Other saints of this period also provide accounts, notably [[Gregory of Tours|St Gregory of Tours]], [[John Damascene|St John Damascene]], and [[Modestus of Jerusalem|St Modestus of Jerusalem]].
In some versions of the story the event is said to have taken place in [[Ephesus]], in the [[House of the Virgin Mary]], although this is a much more recent and localized tradition. The earliest traditions all locate the end of Mary's life in [[Jerusalem]] (see "[[Mary's Tomb]]"). By the 7th century a variation emerged, according to which one of the apostles, often identified as [[Thomas (apostle)|St Thomas]], was not present at the death of Mary, but his late arrival precipitates a reopening of Mary's tomb, which is found to be empty except for her grave clothes. In a later tradition, Mary drops her [[girdle]] down to the apostle from heaven as testament to the event.<ref>[ Ante-Nicene Fathers - ''The Writings of the Fathers Down to A.D. 325''], vol. 8 page 594</ref> This incident is depicted in many later paintings of the Assumption.
The Assumption of Mary became an established teaching across the Eastern, Western, Coptic and Oriental churches from at least the late 7th Century, the festival date settling at August 15th. Theological debate about the Assumption continued, following the Reformation, climaxing in 1950 when Pope [[Pius XII]] defined it as dogma for the Roman Catholic Church.<ref name = "Vatican-deus_en"> Apostolic Constitution Munificentissimus Deus, no 44 []</ref> The Roman Catholic Church claims that this doctrine is not founded on the apocryphal accounts as having any authority, nor that the church bases its teaching about the Assumption on them, but rather on the historic teaching of the Church down the centuries. However Protestant theologians reject such arguments as semantics; that apocryphal accounts did in fact become the basis for such church teachings, which were then set forth as dogma. They cite the fact that the idea did not gain acceptance in the church until the [[sixth century]], after Gregory of Tours accepted the apocryphal work "Transitus Beatae Mariae"<ref>[ Christian Resources<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>. Indeed Roman Catholic theologian Ludwig Ott stated, "The idea of the bodily assumption of Mary is first expressed in certain transitus–narratives of the fifth and sixth centuries.... The first Church author to speak of the bodily ascension of Mary, in association with an apocryphal transitus B.M.V., is St. Gregory of Tours."<ref>Ludwig Ott, Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma (Rockford: Tan, 1974), pp. 209–210</ref> The Roman Catholic writer Eamon Duffy goes further, conceding that "there is, clearly, no historical evidence whatever for it."<ref>Eamon Duffy, What Catholics Believe About Mary (London: Catholic Truth Society, 1989), p. 17</ref>.
==The Assumption in Roman Catholic teaching==
[[Image:Ida10-1.jpg|250px|thumb|right|[[Pius XII]]: ''The Immaculate Mother of God, the ever Virgin Mary, having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory'' ]]
In this dogmatic statement, the phrase "having completed the course of her earthly life," leaves open the question of whether the Virgin Mary died before her Assumption, or, whether she was assumed before death; both possibilities are allowed. Mary's Assumption was a divine gift to Mary as Mother of God. As Mary completed her life as a shining example to the human race, the perspective of the gift of assumption is offered to the whole human race.<ref> Ludwig Ott's ''Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma, pp250 ff </ref>
In Ludwig Ott's ''Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma'' he states that "the fact of her death is almost generally accepted by the Fathers and Theologians, and is expressly affirmed in the Liturgy of the Church," to which he adduces a number of helpful citations, and concludes that "for Mary, death, in consequence of her freedom from [[original sin]] and from personal [[sin]], was not a consequence of punishment of sin. However, it seems fitting that Mary's body, which was by nature mortal, should be, in conformity with that of her [[Jesus|Divine Son]], subject to the general law of death".<ref>Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma, Ludwig Ott, Book III, Pt. 3, Ch. 2, §6, ISBN 0-89555-009-1</ref> The point of her bodily death has not been infallibly defined, and many believe that she did not die at all, but was assumed directly into Heaven. Indeed, the papal decree which infallibly proclaims the doctrine of the Assumption, the Apostolic Constitution [[Munificentissimus Deus]], leaves open the question whether, in connection with her departure, Mary underwent bodily death; that is, it does not dogmatically define the point one way or the other, as shown by the words "having completed the course of her earthly life". <ref name = "Vatican-deus_en"/>
On November 1, 1950, [[Pope Pius XII]] solemnly declared:
:''By the authority of our Lord Jesus Christ, of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, and by our own authority, we pronounce, declare, and define it to be a divinely revealed dogma: that the Immaculate Mother of God, the ever Virgin Mary, having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory''<ref> Constitution Munificentissimus Deus, no 44</ref>
Since the 1870 solemn declaration of [[Papal Infallibility]] by [[Vatican I]] in 1870, this declaration by [[Pius XII]] has been the first and only [[ex cathedra]] use of Papal Infallibility. While Pope [[Pius XII]] deliberately left open the question of whether Mary died before her Assumption, the more common teaching of the early Fathers is that she did.<ref> As the Virgin Mary remained an ever-virgin and sinless, it is viewed that the Virgin Mary could not thus suffer the consequences of [[Original Sin]], which is chiefly Death. Nicea II Session 6 Decree</ref><ref> Nicaea II Definition, "without blemish"</ref>
==The Virgin Mary's heavenly birthday==
[[Image:Tizian 041.jpg|right|thumb|200px|Possibly the most famous rendition of the subject in Western art, [[Titian]]'s ''Assunta'' (1516-18).]]
The Assumption is important to many [[Catholics]] as the Virgin Mary's heavenly birthday (the day that Mary was received into Heaven). Her acceptance into the glory of Heaven is seen by them as the symbol of the promise made by Jesus to all enduring Christians that they too will be received into paradise. The Assumption of Mary is symbolised in the [[Fleur-de-lys]] Madonna.
The Feast of the Assumption is a [[Holiday|Public Holiday]] in many countries, including [[Austria]], [[Belgium]], [[Cameroon]], [[Chile]], [[Croatia]], [[France]], some predominantly Catholic states (such as [[Bavaria]] and [[Saarland]]) of [[Germany]], [[Greece]], [[Macedonia]], [[Italy]], [[Lebanon]], [[Luxembourg]], [[Malta]], [[Mauritius]], [[Paraguay]], [[Poland]], [[Portugal]], [[Spain]], and [[Vanuatu]]. In [[Guatemala]] it is observed in [[Guatemala City]] and in the town of [[Santa Maria Nebaj]], both of which claim her as their [[patron saint]]. Also, this is the celebration of [[Mother's Day]] in [[Costa Rica]]. In many places, religious parades and popular festivals are held to celebrate this day. In [[Anglicanism]] and [[Lutheranism]], the feast is kept, but without official use of the word "Assumption". Her feast day is Fête Nationale of the [[Acadian]]s, of whom she is the patron saint. Businesses close on that day in heavily francophone parts of [[New Brunswick]], [[Canada]]. The Virgin Assumed in Heaven is also patroness of the [[Maltese Islands]] and her feast, celebrated on [[15 August]], apart from being a public holiday in [[Malta]] is also celebrated with great solemnity in all the local churches. In [[New York City]], alternate side of the street parking rules are suspended.<ref>New York City Department of Transportation: [ Alternate Side Parking Calendar], 2006</ref>
==Assumption and Dormition (Eastern Christianity) compared==
<!-- Unsourced image removed: [[Image:l-Assunzjoni.jpg|thumb|left|''L'assunzione della Vergine'' Filippo Fortunato Ventui, Mqabba parish Church, Malta, 1896.]] -->
The Roman Catholic Feast of the Assumption is celebrated on [[August 15]], and the [[Eastern Orthodox Church|Eastern Orthodox]] and [[Eastern Catholics]] celebrate the [[Dormition of the Theotokos]] (the falling asleep of the Mother of God) on the same date, preceded by a 14-day [[fast]] period. Eastern Orthodox Christians believe that Mary died a natural death, that her soul was received by Christ upon death, and that her body was resurrected on the third day after her death and that she was taken up into heaven bodily in anticipation of the general resurrection. Her tomb was found empty on the third day. "...Orthodox tradition is clear and unwavering in regard to the central point [of the Dormition]: the Holy Virgin underwent, as did her Son, a physical death, but her body -- like His -- was afterwards raised from the dead and she was taken up into heaven, in her body as well as in her soul. She has passed beyond death and judgement, and lives wholly in the Age to Come. The Resurrection of the Body ... has in her case been anticipated and is already an accomplished fact. That does not mean, however, that she is dissociated from the rest of humanity and placed in a wholly different category: for we all hope to share one day in that same glory of the Resurrection of the Body which she enjoys even now."<ref>Bishop Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia, in: Festal Menaion [London: Faber and Faber, 1969], p. 64.</ref> Many Catholics also believe that she first died before being assumed, but they add that she was miraculously resurrected before being assumed. Others believe she was assumed into Heaven without first passing through death. As mentioned earlier, this aspect of the Assumption is not authoritatively defined in Catholic theology. [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Eastern Catholics]] also observe the Feast of the Dormition. Many theologians note by way of comparison that in the Roman Catholic Church, the Assumption is dogmatically defined, while in the Eastern Orthodox tradition, the Dormition is less dogmatically than liturgically and mystically defined. (Such differences spring from a larger pattern in the two traditions, wherein Roman Catholic teachings are often dogmatically and authoritatively defined - in part because of the more centralized structure of Roman Catholicism - while in Eastern Orthodoxy, many doctrines are less authoritative.)<ref>See [ Three Sermons on the Dormition of the Virgin] by [[John of Damascus]], from the Medieval Sourcebook</ref>
==Assumption in Anglicanism==
{{Roman Catholic Mariology}}
The [[Book of Common Prayer|Prayer Books]] of the [[Scottish Episcopal Church]] and the [[Anglican Church of Canada]] mark 15 August as the '''Falling Asleep of the Blessed Virgin Mary'''. In the [[Episcopal Church in the United States of America]], the day is observed as a Holy Day of '''St Mary the Virgin''', and in the [[Church of England]] the day is a [[Festival (Church of England)|Festival]] of '''The Blessed Virgin Mary'''. In all churches of the [[Anglican Communion]] [[Anglo-Catholics]] often observe the feast day under the same name as Roman Catholics.
The recent Anglican-Roman Catholic agreed statement on the Virgin Mary assigns a place for both the Dormition and the Assumption in [[Anglican]] devotion.<ref>[ Mary: Grace and Hope in Christ]</ref>
==Scriptural Sources==
As mentioned, recent papal scholarship has cited John 14:3 as evidence of the Assumption in principle if not formally. Near the end of a review of the doctrine's history -- a review which serves as the bulk of [[Munificentissimus Deus]] -- [[Pope Pius XII]] tells us: "All these proofs and considerations of the holy Fathers and the theologians are based upon the Sacred Writings as their ultimate foundation." Precedent to this, he cites many passages that have been offered in support of this teaching:
<blockquote>29. ...the holy writers...employed statements and various images and analogies of Sacred Scripture to Illustrate and to confirm the doctrine of the Assumption, which was piously believed... On the feast day of the Assumption, while explaining the prophet's words: "I will glorify the place of my feet," [Isaiah 60:13] he [i.e. St. Anthony of Padua] stated it as certain that the divine Redeemer had bedecked with supreme glory his most beloved Mother from whom he had received human flesh. He asserts that "you have here a clear statement that the Blessed Virgin has been assumed in her body, where was the place of the Lord's feet. ..."<br />
30. ...St. Albert the a sermon which he delivered on the sacred day of the Blessed Virgin Mary's annunciation, explained the words "Hail, full of grace" [Luke 1:28]-words used by the angel who addressed her-the Universal Doctor, comparing the Blessed Virgin with Eve, stated clearly and incisively that she was exempted from the fourfold curse that had been laid upon Eve [cf. Genesis 3:16]. ...<br />
32. Along with many others, the Seraphic Doctor held the same views. He considered it as entirely certain that...God...would never have permitted her body to have been resolved into dust and ashes. Explaining these words of Sacred Scripture: "Who is this that comes up from the desert, flowing with delights, leaning upon her beloved?" [Song of Songs 8:5] and applying them in a kind of accommodated sense to the Blessed Virgin, he reasons thus: "From this we can see that she is there bodily...her blessedness would not have been complete unless she were there as a person. The soul is not a person, but the soul, joined to the body, is a person. It is manifest that she is there in soul and in body. Otherwise she would not possess her complete beatitude. ...</blockquote>
The Pope also cites, significantly in paragraph 39, 1st Corinthians 15, where we read (vv. 21-26):
<blockquote>For by a man came death, and by a man the resurrection of the dead. And as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all shall be made alive. But every one in his own order: the firstfruits Christ, then they that are of Christ, who have believed in his coming. Afterwards the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God and the Father, when he shall have brought to nought all principality, and power, and virtue. For he must reign, until he hath put all his enemies under his feet. And the enemy death shall be destroyed last: For he hath put all things under his feet.</blockquote>
In this passage Paul alludes to Genesis 3:15 (in addition to the primary reference of Psalms 8:6), where it is prophesied that the seed of a woman will crush Satan with his feet. Since, then, Jesus arose to Heaven to fulfill this prophecy, it follows that the woman would have a similar end, since she shared this enmity with Satan. The pope comments thus in paragraph 39:
...although subject to [Jesus, who is] the new Adam, [Mary, the new Eve] is most intimately associated with him in that struggle against the infernal foe which, as foretold in the protoevangelium [i.e. Genesis 3:15], would finally result in that most complete victory over the sin and death which are always mentioned together in the writings of the Apostle of the Gentiles. Consequently, just as the glorious resurrection of Christ was an essential part and the final sign of this victory, so that struggle which was common to the Blessed Virgin and her divine Son should be brought to a close by the glorification of her virginal body, for the same Apostle says: "When this mortal thing hath put on immortality, then shall come to pass the saying that is written: Death is swallowed up in victory."</blockquote>
The pope also mentions (in paragraph 26) Psalms 132, a liturgical psalm commemorating the return of the Ark of God to Jerusalem<ref>[ USCCB - NAB - Psalm 132<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> and lamenting its subsequent loss. The second half of the psalm says that the loss will be recompensed in the New Covenant, and so it is hopefully prayed, "Arise, O Lord, into thy resting place: thou and the ark, which thou hast sanctified" (v. 8). Since the Church sees this New Covenant ark in Mary, it understands that she was taken into Heaven in the same manner as the Lord -- that is, body and soul.
In the same paragraph the pope mentions also Psalms 45:9-17 for support of a heavenly Queen present bodily with the heavenly King Jesus, and Song of Songs 3:6, 4:8, and 6:9, which speaks of David's lover "that goeth up by the desert, as a pillar of smoke of aromatical spices, of myrrh, and frankincense, and of all the powders of the perfumer". Regarding the Marian interpretations of those passages from Psalms 132 to Song of Songs 6:9 and those in between, the pope did, however, consider them "rather free in their use of events and expressions taken from Sacred Scripture" (paragraph 26).
Finally, he mentions in the next paragraph "that woman clothed with the sun [Revelation 12:1-2] whom John the Apostle contemplated on the Island of Patmos" as support for the doctrine. The text seems to parallel this woman with the woman of the Genesis 3 prophecy (and hence Mary): for in verse 9 the passage recalls "that old serpent" of Genesis 3, and reflects the prophecy that God would place "enmities between thee [i.e. Satan] and the woman, and thy seed and her seed" when it says that Satan "was angry against the woman: and went to make war with the rest of her seed" (Rev. 12:17).
All these passages -- viz., John 14:3, Isaiah 60:13, Luke 1:28, Song of Songs 8:5, 1st Corinthians 15:21-26, Psalms 132:8, Psalms 45:9-17, Song of Songs 3:6, 4:8, 6:9, Genesis 3:15, and Revelation 12:1-2 -- are drawn upon as Scriptural support of the Assumption both in that original document, and today by Catholic apologists.
* Shoemaker, Stephen J. (2002, 2006). [ ''Ancient Traditions of the Virgin Mary's Dormition and Assumption'']. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-921074-8
* Duggan, Paul E. (1989). ''The Assumption Dogma: Some Reactions and Ecumenical Implications in the Thought of English-speaking Theologians''. Emerson Press, Cleveland, Ohio
==External links==
*[] St.Mary's Band Club of Ghaxaq,Malta which organises the feast of the Assumption of Our Lady in the same village, yearly on the 15th August.
*[ Early Traditions of the Virgin Mary's Dormition and Assumption] a collection of early Dormition and Assumption narratives with introductions
*[ The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary] based on Juniper Carol's Mariology
==Famous paintings==
*''[[Assumption of the Virgin (Correggio)|Assumption of the Virgin]]'' by [[Antonio da Correggio]]
*''[[Assumption of the Virgin (Carracci)|Assumption of the Virgin]]'' by [[Annibale Carracci]]
==See also==
{{commonscat|Assumption of Mary}}
*[[Assumption Cathedral]]
*[[Black Madonna of Częstochowa]]
*[[Dormition of the Theotokos]]
*[[Fleur de lys]]
*[[Holy Trinity]]
*[[Munificentissimus Deus]]
*[[Resurrection of Jesus]]
[[Kategori:Doktrin dan teologi Katolik]]
[[Kategori:Tradisi Katolik]]
[[br:Gouel ar Werc’hez Hantereost]]
[[bg:Успение на Пресвета Богородица]]
[[de:Mariä Aufnahme in den Himmel]]
[[es:Asunción de María]]
[[eo:Ĉieliro de Maria]]
[[hr:Velika Gospa]]
[[id:Maria Diangkat ke Surga]]
[[ia:Assumption de Maria]]
[[it:Assunzione di Maria]]
[[he:חג עליית מרים]]
[[li:Maria Hemelvaart]]
[[mk:Успение на Пресвета Богородица]]
[[pl:Wniebowzięcie Najświętszej Maryi Panny]]
[[pt:Assunção de Maria]]
[[ru:Вознесение Богоматери]]
[[sl:Marijino vnebovzetje]]
[[sh:Velika Gospa]]
[[fi:Neitseen Marian kuolonuneen nukkuminen]]
[[sv:Jungfru Marie himmelsfärd]]
[[vec:Asunzsion de Maria]]
<!-- [[Berkas:Assumption.jpg|thumb|200px|Lukisan Bunda Maria Diangkat ke Surga oleh [[Bartolome Murillo]].]] -->
'''Bunda Maria Diangkat ke Surga''' dirayakan oleh [[Gereja Katholik Roma]]. Maria Diangkat ke Surga juga diajarkan oleh [[Gereja Ortodoks Timur]] dan [[Gereka Ortodoks Oriental]]. Pengangkatan ini umumnya dirayakan pada tanggal [[15 Agustus]].