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{{Infobox language family
|name=KalimantanBorneo Utara Raya
|region=sebagian besar Pulau [[Kalimantan]]<br>sebagian [[Sumatra]], [[Jawa]] dan [[Asia Tenggara Daratan]]
|acceptance=geographic
|region=[[Kalimantan]]
|familycolor=Austronesian
|fam2=[[Rumpun bahasa Melayu-Polinesia|Melayu-Polinesia]]
|fam3=[[Indonesia Barat]]
|child1=Kalimantan Utara
|child2child1=[[Rumpun bahasa DayakBorneo DaratUtara|DayakBorneo DaratUtara]]
|child3child2=[[Rumpun bahasa KayanMelanau-MurikKajang|KayanSarawak Tengah]]
|child4child3=[[Rumpun bahasa BaritoDayak RayaDarat|BaritoDayak RayaDarat]]
** |child4=[[Rumpun bahasa Bekati'Kayan–Murik|Bekati'Kayanik]]
|glotto=none
|child5=[[Rumpun bahasa Melayik|Melayu]]-[[Rumpun bahasa Chamik|Chamik]]
|glotto2=nort2892
|child6=[[Bahasa Sunda|Sunda]]
|glottoname2=North Bornean
|child7=[[Bahasa Rejang|Rejang]]
|glotto3=grea1283
|child8=[[Rumpun bahasa Moken-Moklen|Moklenik]] ?
|glottoname3=Barito
|glotto=nonenort3253
|glotto4=kaya1333
|glottorefname=North Borneo Malayo-Polynesian
|glottoname4=Kayanic
|glotto5=land1261
|glottoname5=Land Dayak
|map=Bornean languages-en.svg
|mapcaption=Wilayah persebaran
}}
 
'''Rumpun bahasa Borneo Utara Raya''' ([[bahasa Inggris]]: {{lang|en|Greater North Borneo languages}}) adalah subkelompok yang diusulkan dalam [[rumpun bahasa Austronesia]]. Subkelompok ini mencakup bahasa-bahasa yang dituturkan di sebagian besar Pulau Kalimantan (terkecuali daerah tenggara yang ditempati penutur [[rumpun bahasa Barito Raya|bahasa-bahasa Barito Raya]]), sebagian [[Sumatra]], [[Jawa]], dan [[Asia Tenggara Daratan]]. Hipotesis Borneo Utara Raya pertama kali diajukan oleh [[Robert Blust]] (2010) dan dikembangkan lebih jauh oleh Alexander Smith (2017a, 2017b).{{sfn|Blust|2010|pp=44, 47}}{{sfn|Smith|2017a|p=346–364}}{{sfn|Smith|2017b|p=459–460}} Bukti yang diberikan untuk usulan ini sepenuhnya merupakan bukti leksikal (inovasi kosa kata).{{sfn|Blust|2010|p=68}}
'''Kelompok bahasa Borneo''' merupakan pengelompokan geografis dari [[rumpun bahasa Austronesia|bahasa-bahasa Austronesia]] yang dituturkan di pedalaman [[Kalimantan]] dan [[Madagaskar]] serta [[Sumatra]] ([[Bahasa Rejang|Rejang]]).
 
Ssubkelompok yang diajukan ini mencakup beberapa bahasa utama di [[Asia Tenggara]], termasuk [[bahasa Melayu]] ([[bahasa Malaysia]] dan [[bahasa Indonesia]]) dan [[rumpun bahasa Melayik|bahasa-bahasa Melayik]] yang berkerabat dengannya, seperti [[bahasa Minangkabau]], [[bahasa Banjar]] dan [[bahasa Iban]]; serta [[bahasa Sunda]] dan [[bahasa Aceh]]. Di Kalimantan sendiri, bahasa Borneo Utara Raya non-Melayik terbesar dalam hal jumlah penutur adalah [[bahasa Dusun Tengah|bahasa Dusun Tengah]], yang lazim dituturkan di [[Sabah]].{{sfn|Blust|2013|p=65}}
== Klasifikasi ==
* [[Rumpun bahasa Borneo Utara|Borneo Utara]]
** Sabah Timur Laut
** [[Rumpun bahasa Serawak Utara|Serawak Utara]]
** [[Rumpun bahasa Melanau-Kajang|Melanau-Kajang]]
** [[Rumpun bahasa Sabah Barat Daya|Sabah Barat Daya]]
* [[Rumpun bahasa Kayan-Murik|Kayan-Murik]]
** [[Bahasa Kayan|Kayan]]
** Modang
** Muller-Schwaner 'Punan'
** [[Bahasa Murik|Murik]]
* [[Rumpun bahasa Dayak Darat|Dayak Darat]]
** [[Rumpun bahasa Bekati'|Bekati']]
** Bidayuh
** [[Rumpun bahasa Dayak Darat Selatan|Dayak Darat Selatan]]
** [[Bahasa Benyadu'|Benyadu']]
** [[Bahasa Sanggau|Sanggau]]
* [[Rumpun bahasa Barito Raya|Barito Raya]]
** [[Rumpun bahasa Barito Timur|Barito Timur]]
** [[Rumpun bahasa Barito Barat|Barito Barat]]
** [[Rumpun bahasa Mahakam|Mahakam]]
** [[Rumpun bahasa Sama-Bajau|Sama-Bajaw]]
 
Karena hipotesis Borneo Utara Raya juga memasukkan bahasa-bahasa Melayik, Chamik, dan Sunda, usulan ini berselisih dengan hipotesis [[rumpun bahasa Melayu-Sumbawa|Melayu-Sumbawa]] (mencakup bahasa-bahasa Melayik, Chamik, Sunda, dan Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa) yang diajukan oleh Alexander Adelaar.{{sfn|Blust|2010|p=81}}{{sfn|Adelaar|2005}}
== Catatan ==
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{{reflist}}
== CatatanHistory ==
Blust connects the GNB expansion with the migration of Austronesian speakers into the [[Maritime Southeast Asia]]. According to Blust, when Austronesian speakers came from the north through the [[Philippines]], they split into three groups: one that went into Borneo, one that went into [[Sulawesi]], and one that went into the [[Moluccas]].{{sfn|Blust|2010|p=45}} After landed on Borneo, the first group was further split into two: one that moved along the northwestern coast facing the [[South China Sea]], and another one that moved along the eastern coast. The language variety spoken by the northwestern group eventually developed into Greater North Borneo languages.{{sfn|Blust|2010|p=48}}
<!-- Perhaps should be developed as its own independent article
== North Borneo ==
''North Borneo'' is a 1991/2010 proposal by [[Robert Blust]] that the Northeast Sabahan, Southwest Sabahan, North Sarawakan, and Melanau–Kajang families form an exclusive unit.
 
*Northeast Sabahan ([[Banggi languages|Banggi]], ''[[Ida'an language|Ida’an]]'')
*[[North Sarawakan languages|North Sarawakan]] ([[Apo Duat languages]])
*[[Melanau–Kajang languages|Melanau–Kajang]] (incl. [[Rejang–Sajau languages|Rejang–Sajau]])
*[[Sabahan languages|Southwest Sabahan]]
 
Smith (2017)<ref name="Smith2017"/> classifies Central Sarawak ([[Melanau–Kajang languages|Melanau–Kajang]]) as a separate branch within Bornean. -->
 
== Classification ==
=== Blust (2010) ===
Robert Blust proposed a set of lexical innovations that defined Greater North Borneo. One of these innovations is *tuzuq replacing [[Proto-Malayo-Polynesian]] *pitu for 'seven'.{{sfn|Blust|2010|pp=44, 47}} The following subgroups are included:
*North Borneo
**[[Sabahan languages|Northeast Sabah]]
**[[Sabahan languages|Southwest Sabah]]
**[[North Sarawakan languages|North Sarawak]]
*[[Kayan–Murik languages|Kayanic]]
**[[Kayan language (Borneo)|Kayan]]-Murik-Merap
**[[Segai language|Segai]]-[[Modang language|Modang]]
*[[Land Dayak languages|Land Dayak]]
**[[Benyadu’ language|Banyadu]]-[[Bekati’ languages|Bekati]]
**Bidayuh-Southern Land Dayak
*Malayo-Chamic
**[[Malayic languages|Malayic]]
**[[Chamic languages|Chamic]]
*[[Sundanese language|Sundanese]]
*[[Rejang language|Rejang]]
*[[Moklenic languages|Moken]]
 
While Blust assumed that all languages of Borneo other than those in Greater Barito subgroup with GNB,{{sfn|Blust|2010|pp=44, 47}} he doesn't attempt to explicitly classify several languages, including those with insufficient available data.{{sfn|Blust|2010|pp=52–53}}{{sfn|Smith|2017a|p=28}}
*(unclassified)
**[[Melanau language|Melanau]]
**[[Kajang languages|Kajang]]
 
=== Smith (2017a, 2017b) ===
Smith recognizes an independent Central Sarawak branch within Greater North Borneo, combining the Melanau, Kajang and Punan–Müller-Schwaner languages.{{sfn|Smith|2017a|p=319}} Additionally, he also excludes Moklenic from GNB and places it all the way up as one of the primary branches of Malayo-Polynesian.{{sfn|Smith|2017b|p=459–460}}
*North Borneo
**[[Sabahan languages|Northeast Sabah]]
**[[Sabahan languages|Southwest Sabah]]
**[[North Sarawakan languages|North Sarawak]]
*[[Melanau–Kajang languages|Central Sarawak]]
**[[Melanau language|Melanau]]
**[[Kajang languages|Kajang]]
**Punan–Müller-Schwaner
*[[Kayan–Murik languages|Kayanic]]
**[[Kayan language (Borneo)|Kayan]]-Murik-Merap
**[[Segai language|Segai]]-[[Modang language|Modang]]
*[[Land Dayak languages|Land Dayak]]
**[[Benyadu’ language|Banyadu]]-[[Bekati’ languages|Bekati]]
**Bidayuh-Southern Land Dayak
*Malayo-Chamic
**[[Malayic languages|Malayic]]
**[[Chamic languages|Chamic]]
*[[Sundanese language|Sundanese]]
*[[Rejang language|Rejang]]
 
Proto-Kayanic, Proto-Punan, Proto-Müller-Schwaner, Proto-Land Dayak, and Proto-Kenyah have also been reconstructed in Smith (2017a).{{sfn|Smith|2017a|p=49–50}}
 
==Austroasiatic substratum==
According to [[Roger Blench]] (2010),<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Blench|first=Roger|date=2010|title=Was there an Austroasiatic Presence in Island Southeast Asia prior to the Austronesian Expansion?|url=http://journals.lib.washington.edu/index.php/JIPA/article/view/10637|journal=Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association|volume=30|issue=|pages=|doi=10.7152/bippa.v30i0.10637|issn=|via=}}</ref> [[Austroasiatic languages]] were once spoken in Borneo. Blench cites Austroasiatic-origin vocabulary words in modern-day Bornean branches such as [[Land Dayak languages|Land Dayak]] ([[Bidayuh languages|Bidayuh]], [[Bakati’ language|Dayak Bakatiq]], etc.), [[Dusunic languages|Dusunic]] ([[Dusun language|Central Dusun]], [[Brunei Bisaya language|Bisaya]], etc.), [[Kayan–Murik languages|Kayan]], and [[Kenyah languages|Kenyah]], noting especially resemblances with the [[Aslian languages]] of peninsular Malaysia. As further evidence for his proposal, Blench also cites ethnographic evidence such as musical instruments in Borneo shared in common with Austroasiatic-speaking groups in mainland Southeast Asia.
 
Blench (2010) claims that lexical forms shared among Bornean and Austroasiatic languages include 'rain', 'to die', 'back (of body)', 'flying lemur', 'monkey', 'barking deer', 'lizard', and 'taro'.
-->
 
==Lihat juga==
*[[Daftar bahasa di Kalimantan]]
 
==Rujukan==
{{reflist|2}}
 
===Daftar pustaka===
* {{cite journal |last=Adelaar |first=Alexander |year=2005 |title=Malayo-Sumbawan |journal=Oceanic Linguistics |publisher=University of Hawai'i Press |volume=44 |issue=2 |pages=357–388 |jstor=3623345 |ref=harv}}
* {{cite journal |last=Blust |first=Robert |year=2010 |title=The Greater North Borneo Hypothesis |journal=Oceanic Linguistics |publisher=University of Hawai'i Press |volume=49 |issue=1 |pages=44–118 |jstor=40783586 |ref=harv}}
* {{cite book |last=Blust |first=Robert |year=2013 |title=The Austronesian languages |series= Asia-Pacific Linguistics |volume=8 |location=Canberra |publisher=Asia-Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University |isbn=9781922185075 |ref=harv}}
* {{cite thesis |last=Smith |first=Alexander D. |date=May 2017 |title=The Languages of Borneo: A Comprehensive Classification |type=Ph.D. Dissertation |publisher=University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa |ref={{harvid|Smith|2017a}}}}
* {{cite journal |last=Smith |first=Alexander D. |title=The Western Malayo-Polynesian Problem |date=December 2017 |journal=Oceanic Linguistics |publisher=University of Hawai'i Press |volume=56 |issue=2 |page=435–490 |doi=10.1353/ol.2017.0021 |url=http://muse.jhu.edu/article/677288 |ref={{harvid|Smith|2017b}}}}
 
==Bacaan lanjutan==
* {{cite book|editor1=Adelaar, Alexander |editor2=Himmelmann, Nikolaus |year=2005 |title=The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar |location=London and New York |publisher=Routledge |isbn=9780700712861}}
* {{cite book |last=Blust |first=Robert |last2=Smith |first2=Alexander D. |year=2014 |title=A bibliography of the languages of Borneo (and Madagascar) |series=Borneo Research Council Reference Series |volume=2 |location=Phillips, Maine |publisher=Borneo Research Council |isbn=9781929900152}}
* {{cite book |last=Lobel |first=Jason William |year=2016 |title=North Borneo Sourcebook: Vocabularies and Functors |publisher=University of Hawaii Press |isbn=9780824857790}}
 
{{Bahasa di Indonesia}}
{{Bahasa di Malaysia}}
 
[[Kategori:Bahasa di Kalimantan]]
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