Bank Grameen: Perbedaan revisi

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'''Bank Grameen''' adalah sebuah organisasi [[kredit mikro]] yang dimulai di [[Bangladesh]] yang memberikan pinjaman kecil kepada orang yang kurang mampu tanpa membutuhkan ''[[collateral]]''. Sistem ini berdasarkan ide bahwa orang miskin memiliki kemampuan yang kurang digunakan.
== Sejarah ==
[[Muhammad Yunus]], pendiri bank ini, mendapatkan gelar [[doktor]] dalam [[ekonomi]] dari [[Universitas Vanderbilt]]. Dia terinspirasi pada [[bencana kelaparan]] Bangladesh pada [[1974]] untuk membuat pinjaman kecil kepada sebuah kelompok keluarga agar mereka dapat membuat barang kecil untuk dijual. Yunus percaya dengan memberikan pinjaman kecil tersebut kepada masyarakat luas dapat menghilangkan kemiskinan yang parah di pedesaan di Bangladesh.
== Daftar pustaka ==
Satu sifat dari Bank ini adalah bank ini dimiliki oleh peminjam miskin dari bank tersebut, kebanyakan adalah wanita. Sekitar 94% dimiliki peminjam, dan sisa 6% dimiliki oleh Pemerintah Bangladesh.
The Grameen Bank (literally, Bank of the villages, in [[Bengali language|Bangla]]) is the outgrowth of Muhammad Yunus' ideas. The bank began as a research project by Yunus and the Rural Economics Project at the [[University of Chittagong]], [[Bangladesh]] to test his method for providing credit and banking services to the rural poor. In [[1976]], the village of Jobra and other villages surrounding the University of Chittagong became the first areas eligible for service from Grameen Bank. The Bank was immensely successful and the project, with government support, was introduced in [[1979]] to the [[Tangail District]] (to the north of the capital, [[Dhaka]]). The bank's success continued and it soon spread to various other districts of Bangladesh and in [[1983]], it was transformed into an independent bank by the legislature of Bangladesh. The bank's stellar repayment rate was broken in [[1995]] by a religious fundamentalist boycott by certain sections of society who objected to the bank's focus on improving the status of women. The boycott soon folded, but the bank's repayment rate was again hit following the [[1998]] flood of Bangladesh before recovering again in recent years.
The Bank today continues to expand across the nation and still provides small loans to the rural poor. As of mid-[[2005]], Grameen Bank branches number over 1,500. Its success has inspired similar projects around the world.
== Kepemilikan dan fakta lain ==
Satu sifat dari Bank ini adalah bank ini dimiliki oleh peminjam miskin dari bank tersebut, kebanyakan adalah wanita. Sekitar 94% dimiliki peminjam, dan sisa 6% dimiliki oleh Pemerintah Bangladesh.
Some other facts about the bank, as of July, [[2005]] are:<sup>[]</sup>
*Total number of borrowers is 4.76 million, and 96% of those are women
*The Bank has 1,537 branches, covering 54,022 villages, with a total staff of 13,947
*Loan recovery rate is 98.95%
*Since inception, total loans distributed amounts to Tk 235.05 billion (US$ 4.90 billion). Out of this, Tk 211.57 billion (US$ 4.38 billion) has been repaid.
==Application of microcredit==
The system incorporates a set of values into the banking system, embodied in [[Bangladesh]] by the [ Sixteen Decisions].
The system is the basis for the microcredit and the [[Self Help Group]] system now at work in over 43 countries. Each group of five individuals are loaned money, but the whole group is denied further [[credit (finance)|credit]] if one person [[Default (finance)|defaults]]. This creates economic [[incentives]] for the group to act responsibly, increasing Grameen's economic viability.
In a country in which few women may take out loans from large commercial banks, the fact that most (96%) loan recipients are women is an amazing accomplishment. In other areas, Grameen's track record has been equally astonishing, with very high payback rates—over 98 percent. More than half of Grameen borrowers in Bangladesh (close to 50 million) have risen out of acute poverty thanks to their loan, as measured by such standards as having all children of school age in school, all household members eating three meals a day, a sanitary toilet, a rainproof house, clean drinking water and the ability to repay a 300 [[taka]]-a-week (US$8) loan.
==Related ventures==
The Grameen Bank has grown into over two dozen enterprises represented by the Grameen Family of Enterprises including:
*Grameen Trust
*[ Grameen Fund]
*[ Grameen Communications]
*[ Grameen Shakti/Energy]
*[ Grameen Shikkha/Education]
*[ Grameen Telecom]
*Grameen Knitwear Ltd
*[ Grameen Cybernet Ltd].
As of [[November 2004]] it had passed the mark of loaning over US$4.4bn to the poor. Along with bringing energy to rural residents and expanding employment, the Grameen family of enterprises has also branched out into rural pond management by Grameen Motsho or the Fisheries Foundation, seeking to preserve the broad diversity of fish in Bangladesh fisheries ponds.
On [[July 11]], [[2005]] the Grameen Mutual Fund One, approved by the SEC, went IPO. One of the first mutual funds of its kind, GMFO will allow the 4+ million Grameen members as well as non-members, to buy into Bangladesh's capital markets. The Bank and its constituents are together worth over US$ 7 billion.
==Social improvement programmes==
Besides extending microcredit loans to the poor people, Grameen Bank has taken several innovative programmes for [[poverty eradication]].
===Struggling members programme===
This programme is focused on helping the beggars. Under this programme, the bank distributes small loans to the beggars. For beggars, the existing rules of banking are not applied. The loans are completely interest-free. The repayment period can be arbitrarily long, for example, a beggar taking a small loan of around 100 Taka (about US $1.50) can pay only 2.00 Taka (about 3.4 US cents) per week. The beggars are also covered under life insurance free of cost. The bank does not, however, force the beggars to give up begging; rather it encourages the beggars to utilize the loans for generating incomes via selling low-priced items. As of 2005, the bank has 45,000 beggars who have taken loans of about Tk 28.7 million (approx. US $441538) out of which Tk. 13.66 million has already been paid off.
===Rural telephone programme===
Bangladesh has one of the lowest telephone densities of the world. Of its more than 85,000 villages, many are not covered under the land-phone network offered by the Government-owned telecom company. To alleviate this situation, Grameen Bank has taken a programme to bring telephones to distant villages. Grameen Phone, a sister company of the bank. is already the largest mobile telephone provider of the country. Using their nationwide network, Grameen Bank brought radio-telephones and mobile phones to almost half of the villages of Bangladesh. The bank also distributed loans to almost 139,000 poor women in rural areas to pay for the phones. The women set up call centers in their homes where the other villagers can come and pay a small fee for using the phone.
There is, however, criticism towards the bank and similar institutions. In some cases, the NGO-based money-lending institutions are very strict in enforcing paybacks. There are even allegations that they do not consider natural calamities like floods that may prevent repayment of loans quickly. Particular examples include the large number of loan defaults following the flood in 1998. Furthermore, many critics doubt the continued sustainability of the venture, citing the need for large government investment in the program.
After the flood crisis, the bank restructured itself to allow for more flexibility in repaying overdue loans and to simplify the loan process. Additionally, measures were taken to increase the transparency of the bank's operations.
== Bacaan lainnya ==
*Bornstein, David. ''The Prince of a Dream''. Oxford University Press, NY: 2005.