Tibet (1912–1951): Perbedaan revisi

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Era sejarah '''Tibet dari tahun 1912 hingga 1951''' setelah runtuhnya [[Dinasti Qing]] pada tahun 1912, dna berlangsung hingga [[Penggabungan Tibet ke dalam Republik Rakyat Tiongkok|penggabungan Tibet]] oleh [[Republik Rakyat Tiongkok]]. Rezim [[Ganden Phodrang]] Tibet merupakan [[Tibet di bawah kekuasaan Qing|Protektorat Qing]]<ref>[https://books.google.com.tw/books?id=KMQeAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA528&dq=%22Tibet%22+%22Protectorate%22+of+the+Qing&hl=ja&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwin7ZmUmOjSAhXKurwKHdqoCswQ6AEIVTAH#v=onepage&q=%22Tibet%22%20%22Protectorate%22%20of%20the%20Qing&f=false Encyclopedia of China: History and Culture]</ref><ref>[https://books.google.com.tw/books?id=02Hjr6RUckwC&pg=PA73&dq=%22Tibet%22+%22Protectorate%22+of+the+Qing&hl=ja&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwin7ZmUmOjSAhXKurwKHdqoCswQ6AEILTAC#v=onepage&q=%22Tibet%22%20%22Protectorate%22%20of%20the%20Qing&f=false Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in China]</ref><ref>[https://books.google.com.tw/books?id=v7G2AAAAIAAJ&q=%22%E8%A5%BF%E8%97%8F%22+%22%E5%AE%97%E4%B8%BB%E5%9C%8B%22+%E8%8B%B1%E5%9C%8B+%E4%BF%9D%E8%AD%B7%E5%9C%8B&dq=%22%E8%A5%BF%E8%97%8F%22+%22%E5%AE%97%E4%B8%BB%E5%9C%8B%22+%E8%8B%B1%E5%9C%8B+%E4%BF%9D%E8%AD%B7%E5%9C%8B&hl=ja&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiP2ODu_ufSAhWFwrwKHfJtDeYQ6AEIKDAC Jin ri you zheng, 第 469~480 号]</ref><ref>[https://books.google.com.tw/books?id=qXhOAAAAMAAJ&q=%22%E8%A5%BF%E8%97%8F%22+%22%E5%AE%97%E4%B8%BB%E5%9C%8B%22&dq=%22%E8%A5%BF%E8%97%8F%22+%22%E5%AE%97%E4%B8%BB%E5%9C%8B%22&hl=ja&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjF346A_efSAhWEEbwKHQNTBzUQ6AEI8AQwYw Bian jiang wen hua lun ji: Papers on China's border region cultures]</ref> hingga tahun 1912,<ref>Ram Rahul, [https://books.google.fr/books?id=GXgkHBRRKd4C&pg=PA42&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false ''Central Asia: an outline history''], New Delhi, Concept Publishing Company, 1997, {{p.|42}} : "From then [1720] until the fall of the Manchu dynasty in 1912, the Manchu Ch'ing government stationed an Amban, a Manchu mandarin, and a military escort in Tibet."</ref><ref>Barry Sautman, Tibet’s Putative Statehood and International Law, in ''Chinese Journal of International Law'', Vol. 9, Issue 1, 2010, p. 127-142: "Through its Lifan Yuan (Office of Border Affairs [...]), the Chinese government handled Tibet's foreign and many of its domestic affairs. During the Qing, Tibet hosted imperial troops and border patrols, and the imperial court appointed Tibetan officials. The Lifan Yuan [...] ratified the Dalai and Panchen Lamas, created joint rule by aristocrats and high lamas and elevated the Dalai Lama above the nobles. From 1728, the [...] amban handled Tibet's foreign and military affairs. From 1793, the amban had the right to identify the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama [...]. Monastic finances were under imperial control [...]. Central-western Tibet was thus an administered territory of China under the Qing. In 1724, eastern Tibet was incorporated into existing Chinese provinces."</ref> when theketika [[ProvisionalPemerintahan GovernmentSementara ofRepublik the Republic of ChinaTiongkok (1912)|ProvisionalPemerintahan GovernmentSementara ofRepublik the Republic of ChinaTiongkok]] replacedmenggantikan theDinasti Qing dynastysebagai aspemerintah the government of ChinaTiongkok, anddan signedmenandatangani asebuah treatytraktat withdengan thepemerintah Qing governmentyang inheritingmewarisi allseluruh territorieswilayah ofdari thedinasti previoussebelumnya dynastyke into thedalam [[RepublicRepublik of ChinaTiongkok (1912–491912–1949)|newrepublik republicbaru]], givingmemberikan [[Tibet]] the status of asebagai "[[ProtectorateProtetorat]]"<ref>[https://books.google.com.tw/books?id=DmVz_FRmrc8C&pg=PA65&dq=%22Republic+of+China%22+protectorate+tibet&hl=ja&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiX0tKRmujSAhVENrwKHSx-DWAQ6AEINDAD#v=onepage&q=%22Republic%20of%20China%22%20protectorate%20tibet&f=false The Missing Girls and Women of China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: A Sociological]</ref><ref>[https://books.google.com.tw/books?id=iB0oCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA230&dq=%22Republic+of+China%22+protectorate+tibet&hl=ja&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiX0tKRmujSAhVENrwKHSx-DWAQ6AEIRDAF#v=onepage&q=%22Republic%20of%20China%22%20protectorate%20tibet&f=false Ethnic China: Identity, Assimilation, and Resistance]</ref> withdengan high levels oftingkat [[autonomyotonomi]] astinggi itseperti waspada Protectoratesaaat undermenjadi theProtektorat di dynastybawah dinasti tersebut. AtPada thesaat sameyang timesama, Tibet wasjuga also amerupakan [[TreatyTraktat of Lhasa|BritishProtektorat ProtectorateBritania]].<ref>[https://books.google.com.tw/books?id=SXc2AQAAIAAJ&q=%22%E8%A5%BF%E8%97%8F%22+%22%E5%AE%97%E4%B8%BB%E5%9C%8B%22+%E8%8B%B1%E5%9C%8B+%E4%BF%9D%E8%AD%B7%E5%9C%8B&dq=%22%E8%A5%BF%E8%97%8F%22+%22%E5%AE%97%E4%B8%BB%E5%9C%8B%22+%E8%8B%B1%E5%9C%8B+%E4%BF%9D%E8%AD%B7%E5%9C%8B&hl=ja&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiP2ODu_ufSAhWFwrwKHfJtDeYQ6AEILjAD 西藏硏究論文集, 第 2 号-西藏研究委員會]</ref><ref>[https://books.google.com.tw/books?id=C_TOrK4SYiQC&pg=PA48&dq=British+government%27s+protectorate+tibet&hl=ja&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiR1uLJmejSAhWIXbwKHSQ5Do8Q6AEIQTAF#v=onepage&q=British%20government's%20protectorate%20tibet&f=false Lamas, Shamans and Ancestors: Village Religion in Sikkim]</ref><ref>[https://books.google.com.tw/books?id=ak3SQTVS7acC&pg=PA84&dq=%22Tibet%22+%22Protectorate%22+of+the+Qing&hl=ja&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwin7ZmUmOjSAhXKurwKHdqoCswQ6AEIXTAI#v=onepage&q=%22Tibet%22%20%22Protectorate%22%20of%20the%20Qing&f=false The Historical Status of China's Tibet]</ref> However, at the same time, several Tibetan representatives signed a [[Treaty between Tibet and Mongolia (1913)|treaty between Tibet and Mongolia]] proclaiming mutual recognition and their independence from China, although the [[Government of the Republic of China]] did not recognize its legitimacy. With the high levels of autonomy and the "proclaiming of independence" by several Tibetan representatives, this period of Tibet is often described as "''[[de facto]]'' independent", especially by some [[Tibetan independence]] supporters, although most countries of the world, as well as the [[United Nations]],<ref>{{cite web|url=https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Decolonization_-_World_In_1945_en.svg|title=English: Map was used to show the progress of the UN's decolonization efforts.|first=United Nations Department of Field Support, Cartographic|last=Section|date=1 May 2010|publisher=|via=Wikimedia Commons}}</ref> recognized Tibet as a part of the [[Republic of China (1912–49)|Republic of China]].
 
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