Agama tradisional Afrika: Perbedaan revisi

37 bita ditambahkan ,  4 tahun yang lalu
Robot: Perubahan kosmetika
k (Robot: Perubahan kosmetika)
}}</ref> Umumnya, tradisi tersebut lisan ketimbang tertulis,<ref name="ReferenceA">{{cite book|title=The Oxford Handbook Of Global Religions|isbn=0-19-513798-1|author1=Juergensmeyer|first1=Mark |year=2006}}</ref><ref name="Introduction to African religion">{{cite book|title=Introduction to African religion |isbn=0-435-94002-3|author1=S. Mbiti|first1=John |year=1991}}</ref> yang meliputi kepercayaan dalam pencipta tertinggi, kepercayaan akan roh-roh, [[penyembahan orang mati|penyembahan leluhur]], penggunaan sihir dan [[pengobatan tradisional]].<ref>[ An African Story [[BBC]]]</ref><ref name="African Religion 2009"/> Peran kemanusiaan umumnya dipandang sebagai salah satu alam yang terharmonisasikan dengan supranatural.<ref name="African Religion 2009">Encyclopedia of African Religion (Sage, 2009) [[Molefi Asante]]</ref><ref>[ What is religion? An African understanding]</ref>
Meskipun penganut agama tradisional di Afrika sulit diperkirakan, karena [[sinkretisme]] dengan [[Kristen]], [[Islam]], dan [[Yudaisme]], para praktisionernya diperkiarakan berjumlah lebih dari 100 juta, atau sekitar 10 persen dari penduduk di benua tersebut.<ref name="Encyclbrit">''Britannica Book of the Year'' (2003), ''Encyclopædia Britannica'' (2003) ISBN 978-0-85229-956-2 p.306 <br />Menurut ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', pada pertengahan 2002, terdapat 480,453,000 Kristen, 329,869,000 Muslim dan 98,734,000 orang yang mempraktikan agama-agama tradisional di Afrika [ Ian S. Markham, ''A World Religions Reader'' (1996) Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers] is cited by Morehouse University as giving the mid-1990s figure of 278,250,800 Muslims in Africa, but still as 40.8% of the total. These numbers are estimates, and remain a matter of conjecture (see Amadu Jacky Kaba). The spread of Christianity and Islam in Africa: a survey and analysis of the numbers and percentages of Christians, Muslims and those who practice indigenous religions. ''The Western Journal of Black Studies'', Vol 29, Number 2, (June 2005), discusses the estimations of various almanacs and encyclopediae, placing Britannica's estimate as the most agreed on figure. Notes the figure presented at the [ ''World Christian Encyclopedia'', summarized here], as being an outlier. On rates of growth, Islam and Pentecostal Christianity are highest, see: [ The List: The World's Fastest-Growing Religions], Foreign Policy, May 2007.</ref> [[Agama-agama diaspora Afrika]] juga dipraktikan dalam diaspora di benua Amerika, seperti [[Candomble]], [[Santeria]], dan [[Vodou Haiti|Vodou]].<ref name="ReferenceA"/><ref name="Encyclopedia of Africa">{{cite book|title=Encyclopedia of Africa |isbn=0-19-533770-0|author1=Anthony Appiah|first1=Kwame |author2=Louis Gates|first2=Henry |year=2010}}</ref>
== Statistik ==
[[Berkas:Igbo medicine man.jpg|thumb|right|Seorang pria penyembuh [[suku Igbo|Igbo]] abad ke-20 di [[Nigeria]], Afrika Barat]]
Para praktisioner agama tradisional di Afrika Sub-Sahara tersebar pada 43 negara, dan diperkirakan berjumlah lebih dari 100 juta,<ref name="Encyclbrit"/> meskipun [[agama di Afrika]] terbesar adalah [[Kristen]] dan [[Islam]].
== Referensi ==
* Information presented here was gleaned from ''World Eras Encyclopaedia'', Volume 10, edited by Pierre-Damien Mvuyekure (New York: Thomson-Gale, 2003), in particular pp.&nbsp;275–314.
* Baldick, J (1997) ''Black God: The Afroasiatic Roots of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Religions''. New York: Syracuse University Press.
* Doumbia, A. & Doumbia, N (2004) ''The Way of the Elders: West African Spirituality & Tradition''. Saint Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications.
* [ Ehret, Christopher, (2002) ''The Civilizations of Africa: a History to 1800''. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.]
* Ehret, Christopher, ''An African Classical Age: Eastern and Southern Africa in World History, 1000 B.C. to A.D. 400'', page 159, University of Virginia Press, ISBN 0-8139-2057-4
* Karade, B (1994) ''The Handbook of Yoruba Religious Concepts''. York Beach, MA: Samuel Weiser Inc.
* [[w:Okot Pbitek|P'Bitek, Okot]]. ''African Religions and Western Scholarship''. Kampala: [[East African Literature Bureau]], 1970.
* [ Princeton Online, ''History of Africa'']
* [ Wiredu, Kwasi ''Toward Decolonizing African Philosophy And Religion'' in ''African Studies Quarterly, The Online Journal for African Studies'', Volume 1, Issue 4, 1998]
== Bacaan tambahan ==
* Encyclopedia of African Religion, - [[Molefi Asante]], Sage Publications, 1412936365
* Julian Baldick (1997). [ ''Black God: the Afroasiatic roots of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religions'']. Syracuse University Press:ISBN 0-8156-0522-6
* [ West African Traditional Religion] Kofi Asare Opoku | Publisher: FEP International Private Limited (1978), ASIN: B0000EE0IT
* [[John Mbiti]] ''African Religions and Philosophy'' (1969) [[African Writers Series]], Heinemann ISBN 0-435-89591-5
* Wade Abimbola, ed. and trans. Ifa Divination Poetry (New York: NOK, 1977).
* [[Ulli Beier]], ed. ''The Origins of Life and Death: African Creation Myths'' (London: Heinemann, 1966).
* Herbert Cole, Mbari: Art and Life among the Owerri Igbo (Bloomington: Indiana University press, 1982).
* [[J. B. Danquah]], ''The Akan Doctrine of God: A Fragment of Gold Coast Ethics and Religion'', second edition (London: Cass, 1968).
* Marcel Griaule and Germaine Dietterlen, ''Le Mythe Cosmogonique'' (Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie, 1965).
* Rems Nna Umeasigbu, ''The Way We Lived: Ibo Customs and Stories'' (London: Heinemann, 1969).
* Sandra Barnes, ''Africa's Ogun: Old World and New'' (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989).
* Segun Gbadagesin, ''African Philosophy: Traditional Yoruba Philosophy and Contemporary African Realities'' (New York: Peter Lang, 1999).
* Judith Gleason, ''Oya, in Praise of an African Goddess'' (Harper Collins, 1992).
* [[Bolaji Idowu]], ''God in Yoruba Belief'' (Plainview: Original Publications, rev. and enlarged ed., 1995)
* [[Wole Soyinka]], ''Myth, Literature and the African World'' (Cambridge University Press, 1976).
* E. Geoffrey Parinder, ''African Traditional Religion'', Third ed. (London: Sheldon Press, 1974). ISBN 0-85969-014-8 pbk.
* E. Geoffrey Parinder, "Traditional Religion", in his ''Africa's Three Religions'', Second ed. (London: Sheldon Press, 1976, ISBN 0-85969-096-2), p. [15-96].
* S. Solagbade Popoola, ''Ikunle Abiyamo: It is on Bent Knees that I gave Birth'' (2007 Asefin Media Publication)
* David Chidester, "Religions of South Africa" pp.&nbsp;17–19
* {{cite book |author= Alisa LaGamma | url= | title=Art and oracle: African art and rituals of divination |location=New York | publisher=The Metropolitan Museum of Art | year=2000 | isbn=978-0-87099-933-8}}
== Catatan ==
== Pranala luar ==
* [ African Comparative Belief]
* [ Afrika] A website with extensive links and information about traditional African religions
* [ Baba] Baba'Awo Awoyinfa Ifaloju, showcasing Ifa using web media 2.0 (blogs, podcasting, video & photocasting)
{{Portal|Agama tradisional Afrika|Agama}}