Kekaisaran Seleukia: Perbedaan revisi

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'''Kekaisaran Seleukia''' ({{IPAc-en|icon|s|ɨ|ˈ|l|uː|s|ɪ|d}}; dari {{lang-el|Σελεύκεια}}, ''{{lang|grc-Latn|Seleύkeia}}'') adalah negara [[Bangsa Yunani kuno|Yunani]]-[[Bangsa Makedonia kuno|Makedonia]] yang terbentuk melalui penaklukan [[Aleksander Agung]].<ref name=" Jones, Kenneth Raymond 2006 174 ">{{cite book |author= Jones, Kenneth Raymond |title= Provincial reactions to Roman imperialism: the aftermath of the Jewish revolt, A.D. 66-70, Parts 66-70 |publisher= University of California, Berkeley |year= 2006 |page=174 |isbn= 0-542-82473-6, 9780542824739 |quote=... and the Greeks, or at least the Greco-Macedonian Seleucid Empire, replace the Persians as the Easterners. }}</ref><ref name=" Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies (London, England) 1993 211 ">{{cite book |author= Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies (London, England) |title= The Journal of Hellenic studies, Volumes 113-114 |publisher= Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies |year= 1993 |page=211 |quote= The Seleucid kingdom has traditionally been regarded as basically a Greco-Macedonian state and its rulers thought of as successors to Alexander. }}</ref><ref name=" Baskin, Judith R. ; Seeskin, Kenneth 2010 37 ">{{cite book |author= Baskin, Judith R. ; Seeskin, Kenneth |title= The Cambridge Guide to Jewish History, Religion, and Culture |publisher= Cambridge University Press |year= 2010 |page=37 |isbn= 0-521-68974-0, 9780521689748 |quote= The wars between the two most prominent Greek dynasties, the Ptolemies of Egypt and the Seleucids of Syria, unalterably change the history of the land of Israel…As a result the land of Israel became part of the empire of the Syrian Greek Seleucids. }}</ref><ref name=" Glubb, Sir John Bagot 1967 34 ">{{cite book |author= Glubb, Sir John Bagot |title=Syria, Lebanon, Jordan |publisher=Thames & Hudson |year=1967 |page=34 |oclc=585939 |quote= In addition to the court and the army, Syrian cities were full of Greek businessmen, many of them pure Greeks from Greece. The senior posts in the civil service were also held by Greeks. Although the Ptolemies and the Seleucids were perpetual rivals, both dynasties were Greek and ruled by means of Greek officials and Greek soldiers. Both governmennts made great efforts to attract immigrants from Greece, thereby adding yet another racial element to the population. }}</ref> Pada puncak kejayaannya, kekaisaran ini meliputi [[Anatolia]] tengah, [[Levant]], [[Mesopotamia]], [[Persia]], dan juga [[Turkmenistan]], [[Pamir Mountains|Pamir]] serta sebagian [[Pakistan]] modern.
Keaisaran Seleukia merupakan pusat penting [[kebudayaan Hellenistik]] yang menjaga keberlangsungan adat [[Bangsa Yunani|Yunani]] dan tempat elit politik Yunani-Makedonia mendominasi, sebagian besar di daerah perkotaan.<ref name="Steven C. Hause, William S. Maltby 2004 76">{{cite book |author=Steven C. Hause, William S. Maltby |title=Western civilization: a history of European society |publisher=Thomson Wadsworth |year=2004 |page=76 |isbn=0-534-62164-3, 9780534621643 |quote= The Greco-Macedonian Elite. The Seleucids respected the cultural and religious sensibilities of their subjects but preferred to rely on Greek or Macedonian soldiers and administrators for the day-to-day business of governing. The Greek population of the cities, reinforced until the second century BCE by emigration from Greece, formed a dominant, although not especially cohesive, elite. }}</ref><ref name=" Victor, Royce M. 2010 55 ">{{cite book |author= Victor, Royce M. |title= Colonial education and class formation in early Judaism: a postcolonial reading |publisher= Continuum International Publishing Group |year= 2010 |page= 55|isbn= 0-567-24719-8, 9780567247193 |quote= Like other Hellenistic kings, the Seleucids ruled with the help of their “friends” and a Greco-Macedonian elite class separate from the native populations whom they governed. }}</ref><ref name=Brit>'''Britannica''','' Seleucid kingdom'', 2008, O.Ed.</ref><ref name=" Glubb, Sir John Bagot 1967 34 "/> Populasi Yunani di kota-kota yang menjadi elit dominan merupakan para emigran dari Yunani.<ref name="Steven C. Hause, William S. Maltby 2004 76"/><ref name=" Glubb, Sir John Bagot 1967 34 "/> Ekspansi Seleukia ke Anatolai dan [[Yunani]] secara tiba-tiba terhenti setelah [[Perang Romawi-Suriah|kekalahan Seleukia]] oleh [[Angkatan darat Romawi|pasukan Romawi]]. Usaha mereka untuk mengalahkan musuh bebuyutan mereka [[Kerajaan Ptolemaik|Mesir Ptolemaik]] dipersulit oleh tuntutan-tuntutan Romawi. Sebagian besar wilayah kekaisaran ditaklukan oleh [[Kekaisaran Parthia|bangsa Parthia]] di bawah [[Mithridates I dari Parthia]] pada pertengahan abad ke-2 SM, namun para raja Seleukia terus memerintah wilayah yang kecil di [[Suriah]] hingga invasi oleh [[Kerajaan Armenia (antiquity)|raja Armenia]] [[Tigranes Agung]] dan akhirnya Seleukia diruntuhkan oleh jenderal [[Romawi kuno|Romawi]] [[Pompeius]].
== Pembagian wilayah kekaisaran Aleksander (323-281 SM) ==