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'''''Summorum Pontificum''''' ([[bahasa Latin]]: Dari Imam Tertinggi) adalah sebuah surat apostolik dari [[Paus Benediktus XVI]], dikeluarkan sebagai "[[motu proprio]]" (yaitu dengan inisiatifnya sendiri). Dokumen ini memperinci aturan-aturan, untuk Ritus Latin [[Gereja Katolik]], untuk merayakan misa menurut "[[Missale Romanum|tata cara misa]] yang dirancang oleh [[Paus Yohanes XXIII]] pada tahun 1962" (bentuk yang dikenal sebagai [[Misa Tridentin]]), dan untuk melayani berbagai [[Sakramen (Katolik)|sakramen]] dalam bentuk lama sebelum adanya perubahan liturgis menyusul adanya [[Konsili Vatikan Kedua]].
 
Dokumen ini,<ref>[http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/motu_proprio/documents/hf_ben-xvi_motu-proprio_20070707_summorum-pontificum_lt.html text on the Holy See's website;] published officially in ''[[Acta Apostolicae Sedis]]'' XCIX (2007), 777-781 available also with [http://www.sanctamissa.org/en/resources/summorum-pontificum.html an English translation in a parallel column.]</ref> tertanggal 7 Juli 2007 dan dijalankan semenjak tanggal 14 September 2007, dikeluarkan bersama dengan sepucuk surat dimanadi mana [[Paus Benediktus XVI]] menjelaskan alasan-alasannya untuk menerbitkan dokumen ini.<ref>[http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/letters/2007/documents/hf_ben-xvi_let_20070707_lettera-vescovi_en.html English text on website of the Holy See]</ref>
 
Dokumen ini menggantikan [[motu proprio]] ''[[Ecclesia Dei]]'' tahun 1988, yang memperbolehkan para uskup secara pribadi untuk mendirikan tenpat-tempat dimanadi mana misa bisa dirayakan menggunakan tata cara tahun 1962. Dokumen ini memberikan kebebasan yang lebih besar untuk menggunakan liturgi Tridentin dalam bentuk tahun 1962-nya, dengan menyatakan bahwa semua imam bolah secara bebas merayakan misa sesuai tata cara tahun 1962 secara pribadi, tanpa harus meminta ijinizin dari pihak manapun. Dokumen ini juga menyatakan bahwa para imam (imam paroki) dan rektor gereja harus mau menerima permintaan dari kelompok-kelompok umat tertentu yang mengikuti tradisi liturgis yang lama ("ubi coetus fidelium traditioni liturgicae antecedenti adhaerentium continenter exsistit" - Artikel 5) untuk mengijinkanmengizinkan seorang imam yang memenuhi syarat untuk merayakan misa bagi mereka menggunakan tata cara misa tahun 1962, dan harus "memastikan bahwa kesejahteraan para umat ini selaras dengan layanan pastoral paroki pada umumnya, di bawah bimbingan Uskup".
 
Dalam surat pendampingnya, [[Paus Benediktus XVI]] menjelaskan bahwa tindakannya itu diarahkan untuk menyediakan sarana secara luas dan berkelimpahan bagi ritual-ritual yang telah menumbuh-kembangkan para umat selama berabad-abad dan ditujukan pada "kehadiran sebuah rekonsiliasi interior di dalam hati Gereja" dalam perselisihan antara [[Kaum Katolik Tradisional]] dengan [[Tahta Suci]], seperti para anggota Kelompok Santo Pius X. Ia menyatakan bahwa, walau awalnya terpikir bahwa kepentingan [[Misa Tridentin]] akan hilang bersamaan dengan generasi tua umat yang tumbuh bersamanya, beberapa generasi muda pun "tertarik padanya dan menermukan di dalamnya suatu bentuk pengalaman dengan misteri [[Ekaristi]] yang secara khusus selaras dengan mereka." Dari sudut pandang adanya ketakutan yang muncul saat dokumen ini sedang dirancang, ia secara khusus menekankan bahwa keputusannya itu sama sekali tidak mengurangi otoritas [[Konsili Vatikan Kedua]] dan bahwa, tidak hanya untuk alasan-alasan yuridis, namun juga karena persyaratan akan "tingkat pembentukan liturgis dan pengetahuan akan [[Bahasa Latin]]" seringkali jarang ditemukan, [[Misa Paulus VI]] tetap menjadi bentuk "normal" atau "umum" dari liturgi Ekaristi Ritus Romawi.<ref>"The Missal published by Paul VI and then republished in two subsequent editions by John Paul II, obviously is and continues to be the normal Form – the ''Forma ordinaria'' – of the Eucharistic Liturgy" ([http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/letters/2007/documents/hf_ben-xvi_let_20070707_lettera-vescovi_en.html Pope Benedict XVI's letter to the bishops on the occasion of the publication of ''Summorum Pontificum'', paragraph 5]</ref>
===Summary of ''Summorum Pontificum''===
[[File:Ostra Brama wnetrze.jpg|right|thumb|200px|Low Mass celebrated at the [[Dawn Gate|Chapel of the Dawn Gate]] in [[Vilnius|Wilno]] (Vilnius). Interior in 1864]]
Pope Benedict XVI released the document after "much reflection, numerous consultations, and prayer."
 
In the document, he stated that "the typical edition of the Roman Missal promulgated by Bl. John XXIII in 1962 was never abrogated"<ref>This is specified in the letter as "never juridically abrogated"</ref> and that "in Masses celebrated without the people, each Catholic [[Priesthood (Catholic Church)|priest]] of the Latin rite, whether secular or regular, may use the Roman Missal published by Bl. Pope John XXIII in 1962, or the Roman Missal promulgated by Pope Paul VI in 1970, and may do so on any day with the exception of the [[Easter Triduum]].<ref>Since the 1955 reform by [[Pope Pius XII]], private Masses are not allowed on these days using any edition of the Missal</ref> (Therefore, priests may offer only public traditional Latin Masses/liturgies on Maundy Thursday, Good Friday and Holy Saturday.) For such celebrations, with either one Missal or the other, the priest has no need for permission from the Apostolic See or from his Ordinary." These Masses may "be attended by faithful who, of their own free will, ask to be admitted."
 
Regarding public Masses, the Pope asked parish priests and rectors of churches to permit celebration of a Tridentine Mass on Sundays and [[Calendar of saints|feasts]] in [[Parish (Catholic Church)|parishes]] at the request of a "stable group of faithful who adhere to the earlier liturgical tradition". He also authorised parish priests, "if the good of souls would seem to require it", to permit use of the earlier ritual for the administration of [[Baptism]]s, [[Catholic marriage|Marriage]], [[Sacrament of Penance (Catholic Church)|Penance]], and the [[Anointing of the Sick]] and bishops, on the same condition, to use the earlier [[Roman Pontifical|Pontifical]] in administering [[Confirmation (Catholic Church)|Confirmation]].
 
Bishops are encouraged to establish "personal parishes" or appoint chaplains for administering the sacraments according to the old form. (Even before the motu proprio, bishops, especially in the United States, occasionally established non-territorial parishes or oratories in which Mass and the sacraments are administered according to the old liturgy. For example, one of the largest such communities in the United States is the [[Oratory of Saint Francis de Sales]] in Saint Louis, established two years before ''Summorum Pontificum'' by Archbishop Raymond Burke.) The role of the [[Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei|Pontifical Commission ''Ecclesia Dei'']] is confirmed, and recourse may be had to it to solve all difficulties, including by "a [[Bishop (Catholic Church)|bishop]] who desires to make provision for requests of [[Laity|lay faithful]] ... but is for various reasons prevented from doing so."
The conditions for the use of the 1962 Missal previously in force are replaced by the following:
* '''In Masses celebrated without the people''', each Catholic priest of the [[Latin Rite|Latin rite]], whether secular or religious, may use the Roman Missal published by Bl. Pope John XXIII in 1962, or the Roman Missal promulgated by Pope Paul VI in 1970, and may do so on any day with the exception of the Easter Triduum (when private Masses are not allowed). For such celebrations, with either one Missal or the other, the priest has no need for permission from the Apostolic See or from his Ordinary. Celebrations of Mass as mentioned above may—observing all the norms of law—also be attended by faithful who, of their own free will, ask to be admitted. (Articles 2 and 4)
 
* '''In parishes''', where there is a stable group of faithful who adhere to the earlier liturgical tradition, the pastor should willingly accept their requests to celebrate the Mass according to the rite of the Roman Missal published in 1962, and ensure that the welfare of these faithful harmonises with the ordinary pastoral care of the parish, under the guidance of the bishop in accordance with canon 392, avoiding discord and favouring the unity of the whole Church. In churches that are not parish or conventual churches, it is the duty of the Rector of the church to grant this permission. (Article 5 §1 and §5)
 
The [[Mass (liturgy)|Mass]] is the [[Catholic Church]]'s Eucharist celebration, whose basic form dates back to the earliest [[Apostolic Fathers]]. It has undergone [[Christian liturgy#History of the Roman Catholic mass|various developments in its practice]], especially in [[Pre-Tridentine Mass#Early changes|the early centuries]]. In response to ''[[Sacrosanctum Concilium]]'', the 1963 document of the [[Second Vatican Council]], the Mass of the Roman Rite was systematically revised, leading to the publication, in 1970, of Pope Paul VI's revision of the [[Roman Missal]], which some [[Traditionalist Catholics]] claimed constituted a rupture with what went before. Pope Benedict XVI does not share this view, stating in the letter that accompanied ''Summorum Pontificum'': "There is no contradiction between the two editions of the Roman Missal. In the history of the liturgy there is growth and progress, but no rupture." But some traditionalists opposed the use of the new form of the liturgy and demanded what they called a [[universal indult]] whereby all priests would be allowed to use the former rite even publicly without seeking any specific authorisation.
 
For more than a year before the publication of ''Summorum Pontificum'' Vatican officials, such as Cardinal Castrillón Hoyos, [[President]] of the Pontifical Commission ''Ecclesia Dei'', indicated that Pope Benedict XVI had decided to issue a document on the matter. As the date on which it was in fact issued approached, these declarations became more precise. The views of bishops in various countries and also of traditionalist groups were sought on the various drafts.
 
On the part of the bishops, two fears were expressed, which Pope Benedict mentioned in the letter to bishops with which he accompanied his motu proprio, declaring them unfounded. One was fear that the document detracts from the authority of the Second Vatican Council, by calling into question one of the Council's essential decisions, namely the liturgical reform. The other was fear that the possibility of a wider use of the 1962 Missal would lead to disarray or even divisions within parish communities. On the latter fear, the Pope commented that "the use of the old Missal presupposes a certain degree of liturgical formation and some knowledge of the Latin language; neither of these is found very often", and that accordingly "it is clearly seen that the new Missal will certainly remain the ordinary Form of the Roman Rite."
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