Perfilman India: Perbedaan revisi

82 bita dihapus ,  5 tahun yang lalu
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(←Membuat halaman berisi '{{Infobox cinema market | name = Sinema dan Film India | image = Alam Ara poster, 1931.jpg | alt = | caption...')
 
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'''Sinema India''' terdiri dari film-film yang dibuat di seluruh India, yang meliputi budaya-budaya sinematik [[sinema Telugu|Andhra Pradesh dan Telengana]], [[sinema Assam|Assam]], [[sinema Bihar|Bihar]], [[sinema Gujarat|Gujarat]], [[sinema Haryanvi|Haryana]], [[Kashmiriyat|Jammu dan Kashmir]], [[sinema Santali|Jharkhand]], [[sinema Kannada|Karnataka]], [[sinema Malayalam|Kerala]], [[sinema Marathi|Maharashtra]], [[sinema Oriya|Odisha]], [[sinema Punjab|Punjab]], [[sinema Rajasthan|Rajasthan]], [[sinema Tamil|Tamil Nadu]], [[sinema Bengal Barat|Bengal Barat]], [[Bollywood]] dan lain-lain.<ref>{{cite news|author=Hasan Suroor |url=http://www.thehindu.com/arts/sharmila-tagore-honoured-by-edinburgh-university/article4031942.ece |title=Arts : Sharmila Tagore honoured by Edinburgh University |work=The Hindu |date=26 Oktober 2012 |accessdate=1 November 2012}}</ref> Film-film India menyebar ke seluruh [[Asia Selatan]], [[Timur Tengah Besar]], [[Asia Tenggara]], dan negara-negara yang berada di bekas wilayah [[Uni Soviet]]. Sinema menjadi sebuah alat untuk meraih ketenaran di negara tersebut dan sekitar 1,600 film dalam berbahasa [[bahasa di India]] dibuat setiap tahunnya.<ref name=produce/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.sebi.gov.in/dp/gvfilms.pdf |title=Electrolux-2nd |format=PDF |accessdate=6 Februari 2012}}</ref>
 
[[Dadasaheb Phalke]] dikenal sebagai ''Bapak Sinema India''.<ref name="thecolorsofindia1">{{cite news|url=http://www.thecolorsofindia.com/dadasaheb-phalke/father-indian-cinema.html |title=Dadasaheb Phalke Father of Indian Cinema |publisher=Thecolorsofindia.com |accessdate=1 November 2012}}</ref><ref name="google1">{{cite book| author = Bāpū Vāṭave|author2=National Book Trust| title = Dadasaheb Phalke, the father of Indian cinema| url = http://books.google.com/?id=zTZnAAAAMAAJ| accessdate = 1 November 2012| year = 2004| publisher = National Book Trust| isbn = 978-81-237-4319-6 }}</ref><ref name="indiatimes1">{{cite news|author=Sachin Sharma |url=http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-06-28/vadodara/32456429_1_godhra-dadasaheb-phalke-father-of-indian-cinema |title=Godhra forgets its days spent with Dadasaheb Phalke |work=The Times of India |date=28 June 2012 |accessdate=1 November 2012}}</ref><ref name="vilanilam128">{{cite book| last = Vilanilam| first = J. V.| title = Mass Communication in India: A Sociological Perspective| url = http://books.google.com/?id=nADAQgAACAAJ&pg=PA128| year = 2005| publisher = Sage Publications| location = New Delhi| isbn = 81-7829-515-6| page = 128 }}</ref> [[Penghargaan Dadasaheb Phalke]], yang merupakan sebuah penghargaan untuk seseorang atas jasa-jasa seumur hidupnya dalam bidang sinema, dibuat untuk menghormatinya, oleh [[Pemerintah India]] pada 1969, dan merupakan penghargaan paling prestisius dan disorot dalam sinema India.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.dff.nic.in/dadasahebphalke.asp |title=::Directorate of Film Festivals:: |publisher=Dff.nic.in |date=10 Juni 2012 |accessdate=1 November 2012}}</ref>
 
Pada abad ke-20, sinema India, bersama dengan [[Sinema Amerika Serikat|Hollywood]] dan [[Sinema China|industri film Tiongkok]], menjadi sebuah wirausaha global.<ref name="Khanna155">Khanna, 155</ref> Pada 2013, dalam hal film tahunan, India meraih peringkat pertama, disusul dengan [[Nollywood]],<ref name=produce/><ref>{{cite web |accessdate=26 March 2013 |url=http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=30707 |title=Nigeria surpasses Hollywood as world's second largest film producer – UN |publisher=United Nations |date=5 May 2009}}</ref> [[Sinema Amerika Serikat|Hollywood]] dan China.<ref>{{cite news| url=http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-01-10/india/28358616_1_film-industry-chinese-film-chinese-movie | work=The Times of India | title=Chinese film industry races close to Bollywood | date=10 January 2011}}</ref> Pada 2012, India membuat 1,602 film fitur dengan [[sinema Tamil]] yang memimpin disusul dengan [[Sinema Telugu]] dan [[Bollywood]].<ref name=produce/> Industri film India meraih pendapatan sebesar $1.86 miliar (INR 93 miliar) pada 2011. Jumlah tersebut diperkirakan akan meningkat menjadi $3 miliar (INR 150 miliar) pada 2016.<ref>[http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/bollywood-2012-nine-blockbusters-406727 Bollywood 2012: Nine Blockbusters]. Hollywoodreporter.com (2012-12-28). Retrieved on 2013-07-29.</ref>
* {{cite book|author1=Suresh Chabria|author2=Paolo Cherchi Usai|title=Light of Asia: Indian Silent Cinema, 1912–1934|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=CORkAAAAMAAJ|year=1994|publisher=Wiley Eastern|isbn=978-81-224-0680-1}}
<!-- * {{cite book| last = Bassano| first = Brian| title = MCC in South Africa 1938–39| year = 1997| isbn = 978-0-9516563-5-8 }} Cricket book?-->
* {{cite book| author = Stanley A. Wolpert| title = Encyclopedia of India| year = 2006| isbn = 978-0-684-31350-4 }}
* {{cite book| last = Desai| first = Jigna| title = Beyond Bollywood: The Cultural Politics of South Asian Diasporic Film| year = 2004| publisher = Psychology Press| isbn = 978-0-415-96684-9 }}
* {{cite book| author = K. Moti Gokulsing|author2=Wimal Dissanyake| title = Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change| year = 2004| publisher = Trentham Books Limited| isbn = 978-1-85856-329-9 }}
* Gulzar, Govin Nihalanni, & Saibel Chatterjee. ''Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema'' New Delhi: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2003. ISBN 8179910660.
* Khanna, Amit (2003), "The Business of Hindi Films", ''Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema: historical record, the business and its future, narrative forms, analysis of the medium, milestones, biographies'', Encyclopædia Britannica (India) Private Limited, ISBN 978-81-7991-066-5.
<!-- * Khanna, Amit (2003), "The Future of Hindi Film Business", ''Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema: historical record, the business and its future, narrative forms, analysis of the medium, milestones, biographies'', Encyclopædia Britannica (India) Private Limited, ISBN 978-81-7991-066-5. SAME AS ABOVE-->
* {{cite book| last1 = Gopal| first1 = Sangita| last2 = Moorti| first2 = Sujata| title = Global Bollywood: Travels of Hindi Song and Dance| year = 2008| publisher = University of Minnesota Press| isbn = 978-0-8166-4578-7 }}
* Narweker, Sanjit, ed. ''Directory of Indian Film-Makers and Films''. Flicks Books, 1994. ISBN 0948911409
* {{cite book| author = Stanley A. Wolpert| title = Encyclopedia of India| year = 2006| isbn = 978-0-684-31351-1 }}
* {{cite book| last = Nowell-Smith| first = Geoffrey| title = The Oxford History of World Cinema| year = 1996| publisher = Oxford University Press, US| isbn = 978-0-19-811257-0 }}
* {{cite book| last1 = Rajadhyaksha| first1 = Ashish| last2 = Willemen| first2 = Paul| title = Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema| year = 1999| publisher = Routledge| isbn = 978-1-57958-146-6 }}
* {{cite book| author = Stanley A. Wolpert| title = Encyclopedia of India| year = 2006| isbn = 978-0-684-31351-1 }}
* {{cite book| last = Velayutham| first = Selvaraj| title = Tamil Cinema: The Cultural Politics of India's Other Film Industry| year = 2008| publisher = Psychology Press| isbn = 978-0-415-39680-6 }}
* Watson, James L. (2009), ''Globalization'', Encyclopædia Britannica.
* {{cite book| last1 = Gopal| first1 = Sangita| last2 = Moorti| first2 = Sujata| title = Global Bollywood: Travels of Hindi Song and Dance| year = 2008| publisher = University of Minnesota Press| isbn = 978-0-8166-4578-7 }}
 
==Bacaan tambahan==
* {{cite book|title=Report of the Indian Cinematograph Committee 1927–1928|url=http://www.archive.org/stream/reportoftheindia030105mbp#page/n5/mode/2up|year=1928|publisher=Superintendent, The Government Press, Madras}}
* {{cite book| last1 = Dwyer| first1 = Rachel| last2 = Patel| first2 = Divia| title = Cinema India: The Visual Culture of Hindi Film| year = 2002| isbn = 978-0-8135-3175-5 }}
* Culture and Representation: The Emerging Field of Media Semiotics/J A H Khatri/Ruby Press & Co./ISBN 978-93-82395-12-6/ 2013. www.rubypressco.com
 
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