Buka menu utama

Perubahan

12.832 bita ditambahkan ,  3 tahun yang lalu
tidak ada ringkasan suntingan
{{paraphyletic group
[[Berkas:Laurencia.jpg|thumb|Alga merah ''Laurencia'']]
|fossil_range={{long fossil range|Mesoproterozoic|saat ini|ref=<ref name="butterfield">{{cite journal |author=N. J. Butterfield |year=2000 |title=''Bangiomorpha pubescens'' n. gen., n. sp.: implications for the evolution of sex, multicellularity, and the Mesoproterozoic/Neoproterozoic radiation of eukaryotes |journal=[[Paleobiology (journal)|Paleobiology]] |volume=26 |issue=3 |pages=386–404 |url=http://paleobiol.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/26/3/386 |doi=10.1666/0094-8373(2000)026<0386:BPNGNS>2.0.CO;2 |issn=0094-8373}}</ref>}}
|domain=[[Eukaryota]], [[Bacteria]]
|image=NSW seabed 1.JPG
|image_width=263px
|image_caption=Berbagai macam alga tumbuh di dasar laut di air dangkal
|includes=
* [[Archaeplastida]]
** [[Chlorophyta]] (alga hijau)
** [[Rhodophyta]] (alga merah)
** [[Glaucophyta]]
** [[Charophyta]]
* [[Rhizaria]], [[Excavata]]
** [[Chlorarachniophyta]]
** [[Euglenid]]
* [[Chromista]], [[Alveolata]]
** [[Heterokonta]]
*** [[Bacillariophyceae]] (Diatom)
*** [[Axodine]]s
*** [[Bolidomonas]]
*** [[Eustigmatophyceae]]
*** [[Phaeophyceae]] (alga coklat)
*** [[Chrysophyceae]] (alga keemasan)
*** [[Raphidophyceae]]
*** [[Synurophyceae]]
*** [[Xanthophyceae]] (yellow-green algae)
** [[Cryptophyta]]
** [[Dinoflagellata]]
** [[Haptophyta]]
* [[Cyanobacteria]] (alga biru-hijau)
|excludes=
* [[Bacteria]] (non-fotosintetik)
* [[Protista]] (non-fotosintetik)
* [[Animalia]]
* [[Embryophyta]]
* [[Fungi]]}}
 
'''Alga''' (jamak ''Algae'') adalah sekelompok [[organisme [[autotrof]] yang tidak memiliki organ dengan perbedaan fungsi yang nyata. Alga bahkan dapat dianggap tidak memiliki "[[organ]]" seperti yang dimiliki [[tumbuhan]] ([[akar]], [[batang]], [[daun]], dan sebagainya). Karena itu, alga pernah digolongkan pula sebagai [[tumbuhan]] ber[[talus]].
 
Istilah '''ganggang''' pernah dipakai bagi alga, namun sekarang tidak dianjurkan karena dapat menyebabkan kekacauan arti dengan sejumlah tumbuhan yang hidup di air lainnya, seperti ''[[Hydrilla]]''.
** '''Filum''' [[Dinophyta]] (atau Dinoflagellata)
 
== Pranala luar Referensi==
{{Reflist|28em}}
 
==Bibliografi==
{{Refbegin|30em}}
 
===Umum===
* {{cite book| last = Chapman| first = V.J.| title = Seaweeds and their Uses| year = 1950| publisher = Methuen & Co. Ltd| location = London| isbn = 978-0-412-15740-0 }}
* Fritsch, F.E. (1935/1945). ''The Structure and Reproduction of the Algae''. I. and II. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press
* van den Hoek, C., D.G. Mann, and H.M. Jahns (1995). ''Algae: an introduction to phycology''. Cambridge University Press (623 pp).
* {{cite book| last = Lembi| first = C.A.| last2 = Waaland| first2 = J.R.| title = Algae and Human Affairs| year = 1988| publisher = Cambridge University Press| location = Cambridge| isbn = 978-0-521-32115-0 }}
* {{cite book| last = Mumford| first = T F| last2 = Miura| first2 = A| editor-last = Lembi| editor-first = C A| editor2-last = Waaland| editor2-first = J R| title = Algae and Human Affairs| year = 1988| publisher = Cambridge University Press| isbn = 978-0-521-32115-0| pages = 87–117| contribution = ''Porphyra'' as food: cultivation and economic }}.
* {{cite book| last = Round| first = F E| title = The Ecology of Algae| year = 1981| publisher = Cambridge University Press| location = London| isbn = 978-0-521-22583-0 }}
* Smith, G.M. (1938). [https://archive.org/details/cryptogamicbotan031880mbp ''Cryptogamic Botany'', vol. 1]. McGraw-Hill, New York.
 
===Regional===
;Britania dan Irlandia
* {{cite book| last = Brodie| first = Juliet| last2 = Burrows| first2 = Elsie M| last3 = Chamberlain| first3 = Yvonne M.| last4 = Christensen| first4 = Tyge| last5 = Dixon| first5 = Peter Stanley| last6 = Fletcher| first6 = R.L.| last7 = Hommersand| first7 = Max H| last8 = Irvine| first8 = Linda M| last9 = Maggs| first9 = Christine A| displayauthors=8|title = Seaweeds of the British Isles: A Collaborative Project of the British Phycological Society and the British Museum (Natural History)| year = 1977–2003| publisher = British Museum (Natural History), HMSO, Intercept| location = London, Andover| isbn = 978-0-565-00781-2 }}
* {{cite book|last=Cullinane|first=John P|year=1973|title=Phycology of the South Coast of Ireland|location=Cork|publisher=Cork University Press}}
* {{cite book| last = Hardy| first = F G| last2 = Aspinall| first2 = R J| title = An Atlas of the Seaweeds of Northumberland and Durham| year = 1988| publisher = Northumberland Biological Records Centre| location = The Hancock Museum, University Newcastle upon Tyne| isbn = 978-0-9509680-5-6 }}
* {{cite book| last = Hardy| first = F G| last2 = Guiry| first2 = Michael D| last3 = Arnold| first3 = Henry R| title = A Check-list and Atlas of the Seaweeds of Britain and Ireland| edition = Revised| year = 2006| publisher = British Phycological Society| location = London| isbn = 978-3-906166-35-3 }}
* {{cite book| last = John| first = D M| last2 = Whitton| first2 = B A| last3 = Brook| first3 = J A| title = The Freshwater Algal Flora of the British Isles| year = 2002| publisher = Cambridge University Press| location = Cambridge, UK; New York| isbn = 978-0-521-77051-4 }}
* {{cite book|last=Knight|first=Margery|last2=Parke|first2=Mary W|title=Manx Algae: An Algal Survey of the South End of the Isle of Man|year=1931|location=Liverpool|publisher=University Press|series=Liverpool Marine Biology Committee (LMBC) Memoirs on Typical British Marine Plants & Animals|volume=XXX}}
* {{cite book|last=Morton|first=Osborne|year=1994|title=Marine Algae of Northern Ireland|location=Belfast|publisher=Ulster Museum|isbn=978-0-900761-28-7}}
* {{cite journal|last=Morton|first=Osborne|title=The Marine Macroalgae of County Donegal, Ireland|journal=Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society|volume=27|pages=3–164|date=1 December 2003}}
 
;Australia
* {{cite book| last = Huisman| first = J M| title = Marine Plants of Australia| year = 2000| publisher = University of Western Australian (UWA) Press| isbn = 978-1-876268-33-6 }}
 
;Selandia Baru
* {{cite book|last=Chapman|first=Valentine Jackson|last2=Lindauer|first2=VW|last3=Aiken|first3=M|last4=Dromgoole|first4=FI|title=The Marine algae of New Zealand|year=1970 |origyear=1900, 1956, 1961, 1969|location=London; Lehre, Germany|publisher=Linnaean Society of London; Cramer}}
 
;Eropa
* {{cite book| last1 = Cabioc'h| first1 = Jacqueline| last2 = Floc'h| first2 = Jean-Yves| last3 = Le Toquin| first3 = Alain| last4 = Boudouresque| first4 = Charles-François| last5 = Meinesz| first5 = Alexandre| last6 = Verlaque| first6 = Marc| title = Guide des algues des mers d'Europe: Manche/Atlantique-Méditerranée| year = 1992| publisher = Delachaux et Niestlé| location = Lausanne, Suisse| language = French| isbn = 978-2-603-00848-5 }}
* {{cite book|title=Les Algues de côtes françaises (manche et atlantique), notions fondamentales sur l'écologie, la biologie et la systématique des algues marines|first=Paulette|last= Gayral|language= French|location=Paris| publisher=Doin, Deren et Cie|year=1966}}
* {{cite book| last = Guiry| first = M.D.| last2 = Blunden| first2 = G.| title = Seaweed Resources in Europe: Uses and Potential| year = 1991| publisher = John Wiley & Sons| isbn = 978-0-471-92947-5 }}
* {{cite book|last=Míguez Rodríguez|first=Luís|year=1998|title=Algas mariñas de Galicia: bioloxía, gastronomía, industria|language=Galician|publisher=Edicións Xerais de Galicia|location=[[Vigo]]|isbn=978-84-8302-263-4}}
* {{cite book| last = Otero| first = J.| title = Guía das macroalgas de Galicia| year = 2002| publisher = Baía Edicións| location = [[A Coruña]]| language = Galician| isbn = 978-84-89803-22-0 }}
* {{cite book |last=Bárbara |first=I. |last2=Cremades |first2=J. |year=1993 |title=Guía de las algas del litoral gallego |language=Spanish |publisher=Concello da Coruña – Casa das Ciencias |location=A Coruña}}
 
;Arktik
* {{cite book|last=Kjellman|first=Frans Reinhold|year=1883|title= The algae of the Arctic Sea: a survey of the species, together with an exposition of the general characters and the development of the flora|location=Stockholm|publisher=Kungl. Svenska vetenskapsakademiens handlingar|volume=20|issue=5|pages=1–350}}
 
;Greenland
* {{cite book|last=Lund|first=Søren Jensen|year=1959|title=The Marine Algae of East Greenland|location=Kövenhavn|publisher=C.A. Reitzel|id=9584734}}
 
;Kepulauan Faroe
* {{cite book|first=Frederik|last=Børgesen|contribution= Marine Algae|pages=339–532|editor-last=Warming|editor-first= Eugene |title=Botany of the Faröes Based Upon Danish Investigations. Part II|location= København|publisher=Det nordiske Forlag|origyear=1903|year=1970}}.
 
;Kepulauan Canary
* {{cite book|first=Frederik|last=Børgesen|title=Marine Algae from the Canary Islands|year=1936 |origyear=1925, 1926, 1927, 1929, 1930|location=København|publisher=Bianco Lunos}}
 
;Maroko
* {{cite book|title=Algues de la côte atlantique marocaine|first=Paulette |last=Gayral|year=1958|publisher=Rabat [Société des sciences naturelles et physiques du Maroc]|location=Casablanca|language=French }}
 
;Afrika Selatan
* {{cite book|author2= Bolton, J.J.|author3= Anderson, R.J.| last = Stegenga| first = H.| title = Seaweeds of the South African West Coast| year = 1997| publisher = Bolus Herbarium, University of Cape Town| isbn = 978-0-7992-1793-3 }}
 
;Amerika Utara
* {{cite book| last2 = Hollenberg |first2=G.J.| last = Abbott| first = I.A.| title = Marine Algae of California| year = 1976| publisher = Stanford University Press| location = California| isbn = 978-0-8047-0867-8 }}
* {{cite book|last=Greeson|first= Phillip E.|year= 1982 |title=An annotated key to the identification of commonly occurring and dominant genera of Algae observed in the Phytoplankton of the United States| publisher=US Department of the Interior, Geological Survey| location=Washington, D.C.| url=http://www.archive.org/details/annotatedkeytoid00gree|accessdate=19 December 2008}}
* {{cite book|last=Taylor|first= William Randolph|year=1969 |origyear=1937, 1957, 1962|title=Marine Algae of the Northeastern Coast of North America|publisher=University of Michigan Press|location= Ann Arbor|isbn=978-0-472-04904-2}}
* {{cite book| last = Wehr| first = J D| last2 = Sheath| first2 = R G| title = Freshwater Algae of North America: Ecology and Classification| year = 2003| publisher = Academic Press| location = US| isbn = 978-0-12-741550-5 }}
{{Refend}}
 
==Pranala luar==
{{Commons category|Algae}}
* {{cite web|url=http://www.algaebase.org |title=AlgaeBase|first=Michael and Wendy|last=Guiry}} – a database of all algal names including images, nomenclature, taxonomy, distribution, bibliography, uses, extracts
* [http://ccdb.ucsd.edu/sand/main?stype=lite&keyword=algae&event=display&Submit=Go&start=1 Algae – Cell Centered Database]
* {{cite web|title=Algae Research|publisher=National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany|year=2008|url=http://botany.si.edu/projects/algae/|accessdate=19 December 2008| archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20081201013721/http://botany.si.edu/projects/algae/| archivedate= 1 December 2008 | deadurl= no}}
* {{cite web| first=Don |last=Anderson |author2=Bruce Keafer|author3=Judy Kleindinst|author4=Katie Shaughnessy|author5=Katherine Joyce|author6=Danielle Fino|author7= Adam Shepherd |title=Harmful Algae|year=2007|publisher=US National Office for Harmful Algal Blooms|url=http://www.whoi.edu/redtide/page.do?pid=14779|accessdate=19 December 2008| archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20081205151336/http://www.whoi.edu/redtide/page.do?pid=14779| archivedate= 5 December 2008 | deadurl= no}}
* {{cite web|title=Australian Freshwater Algae (AFA)|publisher=Department of Environment and Climate Change NSW Botanic Gardens Trust|url=http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/science/hot_science_topics/australian_freshwater_algae2|accessdate=19 December 2008| archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20081230140015/http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/science/hot_science_topics/australian_freshwater_algae2| archivedate= 30 December 2008 | deadurl= no}}
* {{cite web|title=Freshwater Algae Research|publisher=Phycology Section, Patrick Center for Environmental Research|year=2011|url=http://diatom.ansp.org/|accessdate=17 December 2011}}
* {{cite web|title=Monterey Bay Flora|publisher=Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI)|date=1996–2008|accessdate=20 December 2008|url=http://www.mbari.org/staff/conn/botany/flora/mflora.htm}}
* {{cite web|url=http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/INA.html|title= Index Nominum Algarum (INA)|first=Paul|last=Silva|date=1997–2004|publisher=University Herbarium, University of California|location=Berkeley|accessdate=19 December 2008| archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20081223172950/http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/INA.html| archivedate= 23 December 2008 | deadurl= no}}
* [http://tolweb.org/notes/?note_id=52 Algae: Protists with Chloroplasts]
* {{cite web|title=Research on microalgae|publisher=Wageningen UR|year=2009|url=http://www.algae.wur.nl/uk/|accessdate=18 May 2009| archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20090424044729/http://www.algae.wur.nl/UK/| archivedate= 24 April 2009 | deadurl= no}}
* [http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/glossaries/algae/index.html Algae glossary (Australian Biological Resources Study).]
* {{cite web|title=About Algae|publisher=Natural History Museum, United Kingdom|url=http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/scientific-resources/biodiversity/uk-biodiversity/algaevision/about-algae/index.html}}
* EnAlgae [http://www.enalgae.eu]
 
{{Protista}}