Henry H. Arnold: Perbedaan revisi

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|allegiance={{flag|Amerika Serikat|1908}}
|branch=[[FileBerkas:USA - Army Infantry Insignia.png|25px]] [[Infantry Branch (United States)|Infantry, United States Army]]<br/>[[FileBerkas:Insignia signal.svg|20px]] [[Aeronautical Division, U.S. Signal Corps|Aeronautical Division, Signal Corps]]<br>[[FileBerkas:Insignia signal.svg|20px]] [[Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps|Aviation Section, Signal Corps]]<br/>[[FileBerkas:Prop and wings.svg|20px]] [[United States Army Air Service|Air Service, United States Army]]<br/>[[FileBerkas:USAAC Roundel 1919-1941.svg|20px]] [[United States Army Air Corps]]<br>[[FileBerkas:US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg|20px]] [[United States Army Air Forces]]<br>{{air force|USA}}
|rank= [[FileBerkas:US-O11 insignia.svg|20px]] [[Jenderal Angkatan Darat (Amerika Serikat)|Jenderal Angkatan Darat]]
[[FileBerkas:US-O11 insignia.svg|20px]] [[Jenderal Angkatan Udara (Amerika Serikat)|Jenderal Angkatan Udara]]
|servicenumber= O-2255
|commands= [[FileBerkas:US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg|20px]] [[Pasukan Udara Angkatan Darat Amerika Serikat|Pasukan Udara Angkatan Darat AS]]<br/>[[FileBerkas:Twentieth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png|left|20px]] [[Pasukan Udara Kedua[uluh]]<br/>[[Sayap Bombardemen ke-1 (Perang Dunia II)|Sayap ke-1, Pasukan Udara GHQ]]
|battles=[[Perang Dunia I]]<br/>[[Perang Dunia II]]
'''Henry Harley "Hap" Arnold''' (25 Juni 1886&nbsp;– 15 Januari 1950) adalah seorang [[perwira jenderal]] Amerika yang meraih pangkat [[Jenderal Angkatan Darat (Amerika Serikat)|Jenderal Angkatan Darat]] dan [[Jenderal Angkatan Laut]]. Arnold adalah seorang pelopor penerbangan, Ketua [[Korps Udara Angkatan Darat Amerika Serikat|Korps Udara]] (1938–1941), Komando Jenderal [[Pasukan Udara Angkatan Darat AS]] pada [[Perang Dunia II]], satu-satunya jenderal Angkatan Udara AS yang meraih pangkat bintang lima, dan satu-satunya perwira berpangkat bintang lima dalam dua pelayanan militer AS yang berbeda.<ref name="ans"/> Arnold juga merupakan pendiri Proyek RAND, [[RAND Corporation]], dan salah satu pendiri [[Pan American World Airways]].
Diajari menerbang oleh [[Wright bersaudara]], Arnold adalah salah satu pilot militer pertama di dunia, dan salah satu dari tiga pilot berpangkat dalam sejarah [[Angkatan Udara Amerika Serikat]].<ref group=nb>Arnold, Capt. Charles DeF. Chandler, and Lt. Thomas Milling all qualified for the rating on July 5, 1912. Milling received the first certificate while Arnold was listed first on War Department General Order No. 39, which was the first list of rated Military Aviators. ({{harvnb|Hennessy|1958|pp=59, 229}})</ref>
== Catatan ==
;Catatan kaki
== Referensi ==
* Arnold, Henry H. (1949). ''Global Mission'', Harper and Brothers Publishers, New York. (1989 reprint, McGraw-Hill Publishing, ISBN 0-8306-4004-5)
* {{cite book| first = | last =Association of Graduates | chapter = | title = Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York| editor = | year = 2012| publisher = USMA Digital Library| place = [[West Point, New York]]| isbn = | oclc = | url = | pages =}} ("''Cullum's Biographical Register''") [http://digital-library.usma.edu/libmedia/archives/cullum/VOLUME_9_cullum.pdf Vol. 9 1940-1950]
* {{cite book| first = Rebecca Hancock| last = Cameron| chapter = | title =Training to Fly: Military Flight Training 1907–1945| editor = | year = 1999| publisher = Air Force History and Museums Program|location = Washington, D.C.| isbn = | oclc =606500804 | url = | pages =}}
* {{cite web | last =Cate | first =James L| authorlink = | year =1954| url= http://www.afhso.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-101105-012.pdf|title =Vol. 5 The Pacific: MATTERHORN to Nagasaki June 1944 to August 1945| work =The Army Air Forces in World War II| publisher = Air Force Historical Studies Office| accessdate= 2012-08-11}}
* {{cite web| last =Craven| first =Wesley Frank, and Cate, James Lea| authorlink = | year =1948 | url= http://www.afhso.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-101105-005.pdf |title = Vol. 1: Plans and Early Operations January 1939 to August 1942| work =The Army Air Forces in World War II| publisher = Air Force Historical Studies Office| accessdate= 2012-08-11}}
* {{cite book | first = Lt.Col. Steven E. | last = Clay| title = US Army Order of Battle 1919-1941 Vol. 3: The Services: Air Service, Engineers, and Special Troops Organizations| year = 2010 | location = [[Command and General Staff College]], Kansas| publisher = Combat Studies Institute Press| url = http://www.cgsc.edu/carl/download/csipubs/Clay/Ord_Battle_Vol3.pdf |isbn= 978-0-9841901-4-0| accessdate = 2011-09-20}}
* {{cite book| author= Coffey, Thomas M. | chapter=| title= Hap: The Story of the U.S. Air Force and the Man Who Built It General Henry H. 'Hap' Arnold| editor=| publisher= Viking Press| isbn= 0-670-36069-4| year=1982| pages=}}
* {{cite book| author=Davis, Richard G.| chapter= | title=HAP: Henry H. Arnold, Military Aviator | url=http://www.afhso.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-100927-038.pdf | editor=| publisher=Air Force History and Museums Program| isbn= 0-16-049071-5| year=1997| location = Bolling AFB, Washington, D.C.| pages=}}
* {{cite book| author=Goss, William A.| chapter= Origins of the Army Air Forces| title=The Army Air Forces in World War II Vol. Six: Men and Planes| editor=Craven, Wesley F. and Cate, James L.| publisher=University of Chicago Press| isbn= 0-912799-03-X| year=1954| pages=}}
* {{cite book |last=Griffith |first= Charles |year=1999 |title=The Quest: Haywood Hansell and American Strategic Bombing in World War II |publisher=Air University Press |location=[[Maxwell Air Force Base]] |url = http://aupress.maxwell.af.mil/Books/Griffith/Griffith.pdf |accessdate = 2011-01-12 |ISBN=1-58566-069-8}}
* {{cite book| first = Stephen A. | last = Haller | title = The Last Word in Airfields: A Special History Study of Crissy Field, Presidio of San Francisco, California | publisher = National Park Service | place = San Francisco, California| isbn = | url = http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/goga/airfields_shs.pdf| accessdate = January 1, 2013}}
* Heimdahl, William C., and Hurley, Alfred F., "The Roots of U.S. Military Aviation," ''Winged Shield, Winged Sword: A History of the United States Air Force'' Vol. I (1997), ISBN 0-16-049009-X
* Herman, Arthur (2012). ''Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II''. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4
* {{cite book| first = George F.| last = Hofmann| chapter = | title = Through Mobility We Conquer: The Mechanization of the U.S. Cavalry| editor = | year = 2006| publisher = The University Press of Kentucky| place = Lexington, Kentucky| isbn = 0-8131-2403-4 | oclc = | url = | pages =}}
* {{cite book| author=Huston, John W.| chapter=Biography| title=American Airpower Comes of Age: General Henry H. "Hap" Arnold's World War II Diaries|url=http://ebooks.gutenberg.us/AU_Press_Collection/Books/Huston/HustonI.pdf| editor=Maj. Gen. John W. Huston, USAF| publisher=Air University Press| isbn= 1-58566-093-0| year=2002| page=}} Huston's introductory "Biography" is 108 pages in length and a detailed account of Arnold's life, both professional and personal, to 1941.
: --- "The Wartime Leadership of 'Hap' Arnold." In Alfred F. Hurley and Robert C. Erhart, eds. ''Air Power and Air Warfare'' (1979) 168-85.
* Jordan, Jonathan W. (2015), ''American Warlords: How Roosevelt's High Command Led America to Victory in World War II'' (NAL/Caliber 2015).
* {{cite book| author= Nalty, Bernard C., editor | chapter=| title= Winged Shield, Winged Sword: A History of the United States Air Force| editor=| publisher= Air Force History and Museums Program| isbn= 0-16-049009-X| year=1997| pages=}}
* Perret, Geoffrey (1997). ''Winged Victory: The U.S. Army Air Corps During World War II'', Random House. ISBN 978-03757504720-375-75047-2
* Rice, Rondall Ravor (2004). ''The Politics of Air Power: From Confrontation to Cooperation in Army Aviation Civil-Military Relations'', University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-3960-2
* {{cite book| author= Tate, Dr. James P. | chapter=| title= The Army and its Air Corps: Army Policy Toward Aviation 1919-1941| editor=| publisher= Air University Press| isbn= 0-16-061379-5| year=1998| pages=}}
* {{cite book| author= Walker, Lois F. and Wickam, Shelby Z.| chapter= Part I: Huffman Prairie 1904-1916|title= From Huffman Prairie to the Moon: A History of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base | editor= | publisher= Office of History, 2750th Air Base Wing, WPAFB| isbn= 0-16-002204-5 | year=1986| pages=}}
* {{cite book| author=Watson, George M. Jr.| chapter=Arnold, Henry H. "Hap" (1886-1950)| title=Air Warfare: An International Encyclopedia, Vol. I, Entries A-l| editor=Walter J. Boyne| publisher=ABC-CLIO, Inc.| isbn= 1-57607-345-9| year=2002|page=45}}
;Pembelajaran Sejarah USAF
* No. 89: {{cite book |last=Greer |first= Thomas H. |year=1985|title=The Development of Air Doctrine in the Army Air Arm, 1917–1941|publisher=Center For Air Force History |location=[[Maxwell Air Force Base]]|url=http://www.afhra.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-090601-130.pdf |isbn= 0-912799-25-0| oclc= 12558056 |accessdate=2011-01-11}}
* No. 91: {{cite book|last =Fogerty |first =Robert P.|year=1953|title=Biographical Data on Air Force General Officers, 1917-1952, Volume 1 - A thru L|publisher=USAF Historical Division|location=Maxwell Air Force Base|url= http://www.afhra.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-090601-134.pdf |accessdate=2011-08-10}}
* No. 98: {{cite book| author= Hennessy, Juliette A. |year=1958|title=The United States Army Air Arm, April 1861 to April 1917|publisher= USAF Historical Division|location=Maxwell Air Force Base|url=http://www.afhra.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-090602-017.pdf|isbn= 0-912799-34-X| oclc= 12553968| accessdate=2011-08-10}}
* No. 112: {{cite book| author= Cate, James L. |year=1945|title=History of the Twentieth Air Force: Genesis|publisher= USAF Historical Division|location=Maxwell Air Force Base|url=http://www.afhra.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-090522-049.pdf|isbn=| oclc= | accessdate=2015-08-14}}
* {{cite journal | quotes = | last = Daso| first = Major Dik A. (USAF)| year = 1996| title = Origins of Airpower: Hap Arnold’s Early Career in Aviation Technology, 1903–1935| journal = Airpower Journal | volume = X| issue = Winter| pages = | url =http://www.au.af.mil/au/cadre/aspj/airchronicles/apj/apj96/win96/daso.pdf| accessdate =2011-01-07}} (Part I)
:{{cite journal | quotes = | last = ---| first =| year = 1997| title = Origins of Airpower: Hap Arnold’s Command Years and Aviation Technology, 1936-1945| journal = Airpower Journal | volume = XI| issue = Fall| pages = | url =http://www.au.af.mil/au/cadre/aspj/airchronicles/apj/apj97/fal97/daso.pdf| accessdate =2011-01-12}} (Part II)
:{{cite journal|last= ---|first=|year= 2013|title = Arnold's Evolution|journal= AIR FORCE Magazine|volume= 96 |issue=9|url=http://www.airforcemag.com/MagazineArchive/Pages/2013/September%202013/0913evolution.aspx|accessdate= 11 September 2013|quote= }}
== Pranala luar ==
* [http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=8526 NMUSAF fact sheet: Gen. Henry H. "Hap" Arnold]
* [http://www.af.mil/information/heritage/person.asp?dec=Early_Years&pid=123006476 General Henry H. Arnold (official USAF biography)]
* [http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/cc/arnold.html General of the Air Force, Henry H. "Hap" Arnold] Air University biography
* {{Early Aviators|earnold.htm}}
* {{Internet Archive short film|id=gov.archives.arc.2569701|name=Big Picture: The Hap Arnold Story}}
* [http://arnold-air.org/aas/namesake/ Arnold Air Society biography]
* [http://www.nationalaviation.org/arnold-henry/ National Aviation Hall of Fame enshrinement page]
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