Gerusan jembatan

Gerusan jembatan adalah proses terbawanya sedimen, seperti pasir dan kerikil, dari sekitar jembatan, abutmen, atau pilar. Gerusan hidrodinamik disebabkan oleh aliran air yang cepat hingga membentuk lubang gerusan di dasar sungai, mengurangi integritas struktur.[1]

Sebuah diagram yang menunjukkan bagaimana lubang gerusan terbentuk

Di Amerika Serikat, gerusan merupakan satu dari tiga penyebab utama keruntuhan jembatan (selain tabrakan dan kelebihan muatan). Diperkirakan sekitar 60% kegagalan struktur jembatan di Amerika Serikat disebabkan oleh penggerusan dan penyebab hidrolis lainnya.[2] Penggerusan menjadi penyebab utama kegagalan jembatan di jalan bebas hambatan di Amerika Serikat,[3] dengan 46 dari 86 kegagalan struktur jembatan diakibatkan oleh gerusan dekat pilar antara tahun 1961 hingga 1976.[4]

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ Linda P. Warren, Scour at Bridges: Stream Stability and Scour Assessment at Bridges in Massachusetts Diarsipkan 2017-02-12 di Wayback Machine., U.S. Geological Survey, 2011.
  2. ^ Mark N. Landers, Bridge Scour Data Management. Published in Hydraulic Engineering: Saving a Threatened Resource—In Search of Solutions: Proceedings of the Hydraulic Engineering sessions at Water Forum ’92. Baltimore, Maryland, August 2–6, 1992. Published by American Society of Civil Engineers.
  3. ^ Bridge Scour Evaluation: Screening, Analysis, & Countermeasures, United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Technology & Development Program
  4. ^ "USGS OGW, BG: Using Surface Geophysics for Bridge Scour Detection". Water.usgs.gov. Diakses tanggal 2010-07-30. 

Bacaan lanjutanSunting

  • Boorstin, Robert O. (1987). Bridge Collapses on the Thruway, Trapping Vehicles, Volume CXXXVI, No. 47,101, The New York Times, April 6, 1987.
  • Huber, Frank. (1991). “Update: Bridge Scour.” Civil Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 61, No. 9, pp. 62–63, September 1991.
  • Levy, Matthys and Salvadori, Mario (1992). Why Buildings Fall Down. W.W. Norton and Company, New York, New York.
  • National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). (1988). “Collapse of New York Thruway (1-90) Bridge over the Schoharie Creek, near Amsterdam, New York, April 5, 1987.” Highway Accident Report: NTSB/HAR-88/02, Washington, D.C.
  • Springer Netherlands. International Journal of Fracture, Volume 51, Number 1 September 1991. "The collapse of the Schoharie Creek Bridge: a case study in concrete fracture mechanics"
  • Palmer, R., and Turkiyyah, G. (1999). “CAESAR: An Expert System for Evaluation of Scour and Stream Stability.” National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 426, Washington D. C.
  • Shepherd, Robin and Frost, J. David (1995). Failures in Civil Engineering: Structural, Foundation and Geoenvironmental Case Studies. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, New York.
  • Thornton, C. H., Tomasetti, R. L., and Joseph, L. M. (1988). “Lessons From Schoharie Creek,” Civil Engineering, Vol. 58, No.5, pp. 46–49, May 1988.
  • Thornton-Tomasetti, P. C. (1987) “Overview Report Investigation of the New York State Thruway Schoharie Creek Bridge Collapse.” Prepared for: New York State Disaster Preparedness Commission, December 1987.
  • Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., and Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers (1987) “Collapse of Thruway Bridge at Schoharie Creek,” Final Report, Prepared for: New York State Thruway Authority, November 1987.
  • Richardson, E.V., and S.R. Davis. 1995. "Evaluating Scour at Bridges, Third Edition.", US Department of Transportation, Publication No FHWA-IP-90-017.
  • Sumer, B.M., and Fredsøe, J. (2002). "The Mechanics of Scour in the Marine Environment.", World Scientific, Singapore.

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