Daftar ibu kota Myanmar

Ibu kota Myanmar (Burma) saat ini adalah Naypyidaw. Berikut ini adalah daftar ibu kota politik negara yang dikenal dalam Sejarah Myanmar dari abad ke-9 hingga saat ini. Daftar ini disusun dalam urutan dinasti dan kronologis. Ibu kota nasional ditampilkan dalam huruf tebal

Daftar ibu kotaSunting

Negara Ibu kota Periode Lamanya Catatan
Kerajaan Pagan Pagan (Bagan) 23 Desember 849 – 17 Desember 1297 447 tahun, 359 hari [note 1]
Kerajaan Myinsaing Myinsaing, Mekkhaya dan Pinle 17 Desember 1297 – 13 April 1310 12 tahun, 117 hari [note 2]
Pinle 13 April 1310 – 7 Februari 1313 2 tahun, 300 hari
Kerajaan Pinya Pinya 7 Februari 1313 – 26 Februari 1365 52 tahun, 19 hari [note 3]
Kerajaan Sagaing Sagaing 15 Mei 1315 – 26 Februari 1365 49 tahun, 287 hari [note 4]
Kerajaan Ava Ava (Inwa) 26 Februari 1365 – 22 Januari 1555 189 tahun, 330 hari [note 5]
Prome iyotanan Prome (Pyay) c. November 1482 – 19 Mei 1542 59 tahun, 6+ bulan [1]
Kerajaan Hanthawaddy Martaban (Mottama) 4 April 1287 – kr. Februari 1364 76+ tahun [note 6]
Donwun by 29 Maret 1364 – 1369 5+ tahun [note 7]
[2]
Pegu (Bago) 1369 – kr. November 1538 169+ tahun [note 8]
Pegu unahan sa june 123
– 12 Maret 1552
1 tahun, 8+ bulan [note 9]
Kerajaan Mrauk-U Launggyet 18 April 1429 – 16 November 1430 1 tahun, 212 hari [note 10]
Mrauk-U 16 November 1430 – 2 Januari 1785 354 tahun, 47 hari [note 11]
[3]
Dinasti Toungoo Toungoo (Taungoo) 16 Oktober 1510 – 1539 28–29 tahun [note 12]
Pegu 1539 – 30 April 1550 ~11 tahun [4]
Toungoo 11 Januari 1551 – 12 Maret 1552 1 tahun, 61 hari [note 13]
Pegu 12 Maret 1552 – 19 Desember 1599 47 tahun, 282 hari [5]
Ava 19 Desember 1599 – 14 Mei 1613 13 tahun, 146 hari [note 14]
Pegu 14 Mei 1613 – 25 Januari 1635 21 tahun, 256 hari [6]
Ava 25 Januari 1635 – 23 Maret 1752 117 tahun, 58 hari [7]
Pemulihan Kerajaan Hanthawaddy Pegu November 1740 – 6 Mei 1757 16 tahun, 6 bulan [8][9]
Dinasti Konbaung Shwebo 29 Februaru 1752 – 26 Juli 1760 8 tahun, 148 hari [10]
[11]
Sagaing 26 Juli 1760 – 23 Juli 1765 4 tahun, 362 hari [12]
Ava 23 Juli 1765 – 13 Mei 1783 17 tahun, 294 hari [13]
Amarapura 13 Mei 1783 – 22 November 1821 38 tahun, 193 hari [14]
Ava 22 November 1821 – 10 Februari 1842 20 tahun, 80 hari [15]
Amarapura 10 Februari 1842 – 23 Mei 1859 17 tahun, 102 hari [16]
Mandalay 23 Mei 1859 – 29 November 1885 26 tahun, 190 hari [17]
Burma Britania Mawlamyine (Moulmein) dan
Sittwe (Akyab)
24 Februari 1826 – 20 Desember 1852 35 tahun, 341 hari [note 15]
Mawlamyine
Sittwe
Yangon (Rangoon)
20 Desember 1852 – 31 Januari 1862 9 tahun, 42 hari [note 16]
Yangon 31 Januari 1862 – 7 Maret 1942 80 tahun, 35 hari [note 17]
Yangon 3 Mei 1945 – 4 Januari 1948 2 tahun, 246 hari
Burma Jepang Yangon 7 Maret 1942 – 3 Mei 1945 3 tahun, 57 hari [15]
Myanmar Yangon 4 Januari 1948 – 6 November 2005 57 tahun, 306 hari
Nay Pyi Taw 6 November 2006 – sekarang 13 tahun, 4 bulan dan 26 hari

CatatanSunting

  1. ^ The date of fortification (6th waxing of Pyatho 211 ME) per Zatadawbon Yazawin (Zata 1960: 41) given as the date of foundation. Zata (Zata 1960: 53) says the city of Arimaddana was founded in 190 CE (Sunday, 15th waxing of Tagu 112 Pyu Era) while the palace was moved to Thiri Pyissaya in 390 (Thursday, 1st waxing of Pyatho 312 Pyu Era). Hmannan Yazawin (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 185–188) gives 107 CE as the date of foundation of Pagan. According to scholarship, Pagan was founded in mid-to-late 9th century, and fortified in the late 10th century at the earliest. (Aung-Thwin 2005: 185): radiocarbon dating shows the earliest human settlement in Pagan dates only to c. 650 CE. (Aung-Thwin 2005: 38): radiocarbon dating of Pagan's surviving walls yields dates no earlier than 980 CE, with more likely dates c. 1020 CE. It means the Pyu Era dates claimed by Zata may have been Burmese Era dates. If true, Pagan was founded on 16 March 751 (15th waxing of Late Tagu 112 ME) and the palace was moved to Thiri Pyissaya on 12 December 950 (1st waxing of Pyatho 312 ME).
    (Than Tun 1959: 119–120): King Kyawswa was dethroned on 17 December 1297 (13th waxing of Pyatho 659) according to inscriptional evidence. Chinese records show that the dethronement occurred in June–July 1298.
  2. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 369) states that King Yazathingyan, ruler of Mekkhaya, died after having reigned for five years. But (Than Tun 1959: 123) quotes an inscription which says two brothers Yazathingyan and Thihathu were still alive after the eldest brother Athinhkaya died on 13 April 1310.
  3. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 370) gives Wednesday, 15th waxing of Tabaung 674 ME, which to Saturday, 10 February 1313. But 15th waxing is most probably a copying error since it is highly uncommon to say 15th waxing instead of full moon. The date was probably 12th waxing of Tabaung, which correctly translates to Wednesday, 7 February 1313. Burmese numerals 2 () and 5 () are similar and can easily be miscopied.
  4. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 375): Saw Yun began his reign at Sagaing on 12th waxing of Nayon 677 ME (15 May 1315).
  5. ^ Ava fell to Toungoo forces on 22 January 1555 (Tuesday, 2nd waxing of Tabaung 916 ME) per (Maha Yazawin Vol. 2 2006: 221). Ava had two prior dynastic changes both wrought by the men from Mohnyin. The founding Thado Minbya dynasty (သတိုးဆက်) fell on 20 May 1426 (14th waxing of Nayon 788 ME) to forces led by Mohnyin Thado per (Maha Yazawin Vol. 2 2006: 62). The Mohnyin dynasty (မိုးညှင်းဆက်) in turn fell to the forces of the Confederation of Shan States led by Sawlon on 14 March 1527 (12th waxing of Late Tagu 888 ME) per (Maha Yazawin Vol. 2 2006: 113).
  6. ^ (Pan Hla 2004: 25–26) says per Mon records King Wareru proclaimed independence on Thursday, 6th waning of Tagu 648 ME (16 March 1286). But 648 ME is most probably a typographical error. The date is more likely 6th waning of Tagu 649 ME (4 April 1287) since Mon records themselves say Wareru, who was born on 20 March 1253, came to power at age 34 (35th year). Moreover, Burmese records recognize Full moon of Tabodwe 649 (18 January 1288), which Pan Hla conjectures as the date of coronation.
  7. ^ (Phayre 1967: 66) says King Saw Zein moved his capital to Pegu soon after he came to power in Thadingyut 685 ME (31 August 1323 to 28 September 1323). (Pan Hla 2004: 39–41) only states Saw Zein first had to reacquire Pegu but does not mention a move. According to Pan Hla, Saw Zein' successor ascended the throne at Martaban in 1330. As for the move to Donwun, (Pan Hla 2005: 57–59) gives 725 ME (1363/64). (Pan Hla 2005: 48) says that King Binnya U learned of the coup at the Martaban palace four months into his hunting trip. Since the trip most probably began after the end of the Buddhist Lent on 22 September 1363 (full moon of Thadingyut 725 ME), the earliest he learned of the rebellion would be around January 1364. If he began the trip only after the rainy season was over, kr. November 1363, he might have learned of the rebellion only in March 1364.
  8. ^ Chronicles give only 900 ME (30 March 1538 to 29 March 1539) as the date when Pegu fell to Toungoo forces. (Harvey 1925: 368) translates that to year 1539. (Harvey 1925) generally adds 639 when translating from the Burmese calendar to the Western calendar for Ava and early Toungoo periods, which is highly inaccurate. (The Burmese calendar straddles the Western year. In the 16th century, a little over 75% of the Burmese year fell on the Western year arrived at by adding 638. The book does revert to adding 638 in later periods.) Nonetheless many history books on Burma follow (Harvey 1925)'s dates. (Than Tun's books are an exception.) The date Pegu fell is almost always given as 1539 in Western history books although the actual chronicle text clearly indicates that Pegu fell early in the dry season of 1538–1539 (probably c. November/December 1538), and plenty of fighting ensued after Pegu's fall.
  9. ^ (Maha Yazawin Vol. 2 2006: 197): Smim Sawhtut took over Pegu a little over a month and i love you juliana pusing by adrianne hahaha Tabinshwehti's assassination on 30 April 1550. Per the Shwezigon Pagoda Bell Inscription (Maha Yazawin Vol. 2 2006: 339), Bayinnaung took Pegu on 12 March 1552 (Saturday, 3rd waning of Late Tagu 913 ME).
  10. ^ Rakhine Razawin Thit (Sandamala Linkara Vol. 2 1999: 11) says Min Saw Mon took Launggyet on Thursday, 1st waning of Kason 791, which translates to Monday, 18 April 1429.
  11. ^ The founding date of Mrauk-U appears differently in different sources. The Burmese encyclopedia (Myanma Swezon Kyan Vol. 9 1964: 425) gives the date as Sunday, 1st waxing of Natdaw 792 ME (16 November 1430). But (Harvey 1925: 139) gives 1433, and (Sandamala Linkara Vol. 2 1999: 13) gives Sunday, 1st waxing of Tawthalin 792 ME (20 August 1430).
  12. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 179): Mingyi Nyo declared independence from Ava on Tuesday, Full moon of Tazaungmon 872 ME, which translates to Wednesday, 16 October 1510. (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 196): Tabinshwehti moved his capital to Pegu in 901 ME (30 March 1539 to 29 March 1540).
  13. ^ (Maha Yazawin 2006: 201): Bayinnaung took Toungoo on 11 January 1551 (Sunday, 5th waxing of Tabodwe 912 ME). (Maha Yazawin Vol. 2 2006: 339): He took Pegu, and moved his capital on 12 March 1552 (Saturday, 3rd waning of Late Tagu 913 ME).
  14. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 172–173): The Burmese chronicles do not state that King Anaukpetlun officially moved the capital to Pegu. But Anaukpetlun arrived at Pegu in early May 1613 as part of his war operations and hosted the first function at his temporary palace on 14 May 1613 (10th waning of Kason 975). He did not go back to Ava afterwards.
  15. ^ Mawlamyaing/Moulmein was the capital of the Tenesserim Division while Sittwe/Akyab was that of the Arakan Division of British India. The start date is counted from the date of signing of the Treaty of Yandabo. Arakan, Tenasserim and Pegu were united as British Burma within British India on 31 January 1862.
  16. ^ Yangon/Rangoon became the capital of Pegu Division after the Second Anglo-Burmese War.
  17. ^ Yangon became the capital of the Province of Burma of British India on 31 January 1862.

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 213): 5th waxing of Nayon 904 = 19 May 1542
  2. ^ Harvey 1925: 368
  3. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 2 2004: 2-25): Sunday, 8th waning of Pyatho 1146 ME = 2 January 1785
  4. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 257): Wednesday, 1st waning of Kason 912 = 30 April 1550
  5. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 102): Sunday, 4th waxing of Pyatho 961 = 19 December 1599
  6. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 223): 7th waxing of Tabodwe 996 = 25 January 1635
  7. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 392): 8th waxing of Old Tagu 1113 = 23 March 1752
  8. ^ (Zata 1960: 44): Natdaw 1102 ME = 19 November 1740 to 17 December 1740
  9. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 1 2004: 128): 4th waning of Kason 1119 = 6 May 1757
  10. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 1 2004: 52): Full moon of Tabaung 1113 = 29 February 1752
  11. ^ Buyers: King Naungdawgyi
  12. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 1 2004: 278): Tuesday, 7th waxing of Wagaung 1127 = 23 July 1765
  13. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 1 2004: 395): Tuesday, 13th waxing of Nayon 1145 = 13 May 1783
  14. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 2 2004: 223): Thursday, 13th waning of Thadingyut 1183 = 22 November 1821
  15. ^ a b (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 3 2004: 33): 1st waxing of Tabaung 1203 = 10 February 1842
  16. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 3 2004: 193): Monday, 7th waning of Kason 1221 = 23 May 1859
  17. ^ Htin Aung 1967: 263

BibliografiSunting

  • Myat Soe, ed. (1964). Myanma Swezon Kyan (dalam bahasa Burmese). 9 (edisi ke-1). Yangon: Sarpay Beikman. 
  • Aung-Thwin, Michael (2005). The mists of Rāmañña: The Legend that was Lower Burma (edisi ke-illustrated). Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 9780824828868. 
  • Buyers, Christopher. "The Royal Ark: Burma -- Konbaung Dynasty". Diakses tanggal February 2012. 
  • Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. 
  • Htin Aung, Maung (1967). A History of Burma. New York and London: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Kala, U (1724). Maha Yazawin (dalam bahasa Burmese). 1–3 (edisi ke-2006, 4th printing). Yangon: Ya-Pyei Publishing. 
  • Maung Maung Tin, U (1905). Konbaung Set Yazawin (dalam bahasa Burmese). 1–3 (edisi ke-2004). Yangon: Department of Universities History Research, University of Yangon. 
  • Pan Hla, Nai (1968). Razadarit Ayedawbon (dalam bahasa Burmese) (edisi ke-8th printing, 2004). Yangon: Armanthit Sarpay. 
  • Phayre, Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur P. (1883). History of Burma (edisi ke-1967). London: Susil Gupta. 
  • Royal Historians of Burma (c. 1680). U Hla Tin (Hla Thamein), ed. Zatadawbon Yazawin (edisi ke-1960). Historical Research Directorate of the Union of Burma. 
  • Royal Historical Commission of Burma (1832). Hmannan Yazawin (dalam bahasa Burmese). 1–3 (edisi ke-2003). Yangon: Ministry of Information, Myanmar. 
  • Sandamala Linkara, Ashin (1931). Rakhine Razawin Thit (dalam bahasa Burmese). 1–2 (edisi ke-1997–1999). Yangon: Tetlan Sarpay. 
  • Than Tun (December 1959). "History of Burma: A.D. 1300–1400". Journal of Burma Research Society. XLII (II). 
  • Thaw Kaung, U (2010). Aspects of Myanmar History and Culture. Yangon: Gangaw Myaing Sarpay.