Poster karya Albert M. Bender, Illinois WPA Art Project Chicago (1935)

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) adalah sebuah program pemulihan kerja publik yang beroperasi dari 1933 sampai 1942 di Amerika Serikat bagi pria lajang pengangguran dari keluarga-keluarga pemulihan sebagai bagian dari New Deal. Awalnya ditujukan kepada pemuda berusia 18-25 tahun, program tersebut kemudian diperluas menjadi ditujukan bagi pemuda berusia 17–28 tahun.[1] Robert Fechner adalah direktur pertama dari agensi tersebut, yang digantikan oleh James McEntee setelah Fechner meninggal. CCC adalah bagian utama dari New Deal buatan Presiden Franklin D. Roosevelt yang menyediakan pekerjaan buruh manual tak terampil yang berkaitan dengan konservasi dan pembangunan sumber daya alam di lahan pedesaan yang dimiliki oleh pemerintahan federal, negara bagian dan lokal. CCC dirancang untuk menyediakan pekerjaan bagi kaum muda, dan untuk memulihkan keluarga-keluarga yang memiliki kesulitan dalam menemukan pekerjaan saat Depresi Besar di Amerika Serikat. Pada saat yang sama, program tersebut mengimplementasikan program konservasi sumber daya alam umum di setiap negara bagian dan teritorial. Perputaran maksimum pada sekali waktu adalah 300,000. Sepanjang kursus sembilan tahunnya selama operasi, 3 juta pemuda ikut serta dalam CCC, yang menyediakan mereka dengan tempat tinggal, pakaian dan makanan, bersama dengan upah kecil sejumlah $30 (sekitar $547 pada 2015[2]) sebulan ($25 dikirim ke keluarga mereka).[3]

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ "Timeline . The Civilian Conservation Corps . American Experience . WGBH - PBS". American Experience. 
  2. ^ "Inflation Calculator: Bureau of Labor Statistics". www.bls.gov. Diakses tanggal January 4, 2016. 
  3. ^ John A. Salmond, The Civilian Conservation Corps CCC 1933–1942: a New Deal case study (1967)

Bacaan tambahanSunting

  • American Youth Commission. Youth and the Future: The General Report of the American Youth Commission (1942)
  • Bass, Melissa. The Politics and Civics of National Service: Lessons from the Civilian Conservation Corps, Vista, and AmeriCorps (Brookings Institution Press, 2013)
  • Brandimarte, Cynthia, and Angela Reed Brown. Texas State Parks and the CCC: The Legacy of the Civilian Conservation Corps (2013)
  • Clancy, Patrick. "Conserving the Youth: the Civilian Conservation Corps Experience in the Shenandoah National Park" The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography Volume: 105. Issue: 4. 1997. p. 439ff. online
  • Colen, Olen Jr. The African-American Experience in the Civilian Conservation Corps (1999)
  • Heller, Charles E. "The US Army, the Civilian Conservation Corps, and Leadership for World War II, 1933—1942." Armed Forces & Society (2010) 36#3 pp: 439-453.
  • Helms, Douglas. "The Civilian Conservation Corps: Demonstrating the Value of Soil Conservation," Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 40 (March–April 1985): 184-188 online
  • Hendrickson Jr.; Kenneth E. "Replenishing the Soil and the Soul of Texas: The Civilian Conservation Corps in the Lone Star State as an Example of State-Federal Work Relief during the Great Depression" The Historian, Vol. 65, 2003
  • Hill, Edwin G. In the Shadow of the Mountain: The Spirit of the CCC. (1990). ISBN 978-0-87422-073-5
  • Holland, Kenneth, and Frank Ernest Hill. Youth in the CCC (1938) detailed description of all major activities
  • Jolley, Harley E. "That Magnificent Army of Youth and Peace": The Civilian Conservation Corps in North Carolina, 1933-1942 (Raleigh: Office of Archives and History, 2007) 167pp.
  • Leighninger, Robert D., Jr. Long-Range Public Investment: The Forgotten Legacy of the New Deal (2007), providing a context for American public works programs, and detailing major agencies of the New Deal: CCC, PWA, CWA, WPA, and TVA.
  • Maher, Neil M. Nature's New Deal: The Civilian Conservation Corps and the Roots of the American Environmental Movement (2008). excerpt and text search
  • Mielnik, Tara Mitchell. New Deal, New Landscape: The Civilian Conservation Corps and South Carolina's State Parks (University of South Carolina Press; 2011) 201 pages; CCC built 16 state parks in SC between 1933 and 1942.
  • Otis, Alison T., William D. Honey, Thomas C. Hogg, and Kimberly K. Lakin The Forest Service and The Civilian Conservation Corps: 1933–42 (United States Forest Service FS-395, August 1986) online
  • Paige, John C. The Civilian Conservation Corps and the National Park Service, 1933–1942: An Administrative History. (National Park Service, 1985) online
  • Pasquill, Jr., Robert. The Civilian Conservation Corps in Alabama, 1933-1942: A Great and Lasting Good (University of Alabama Press, 2008) 242 pp, with cd of oral interviews
  • Patel, Kiran Klaus. Soldiers of Labor. Labor Service in Nazi Germany and New Deal America, 1933–1945, (2005), ISBN 0-521-83416-3. online review
  • Salmond John A. The Civilian Conservation Corps 1933–1942: a New Deal case study. (1967), the scholarly history of the entire CCC complete text online
  • Salmond, John A. "The Civilian Conservation Corps and the Negro," The Journal of American History, Vol. 52, No. 1. (Jun. 1965), pp. 75–88. in JSTOR
  • Sherraden, Michael W. "Military Participation in a Youth Employment Program: The Civilian Conservation Corps," Armed Forces and Society, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 227–245, April 1981, pp. 227–245; ISSN 0095-327X available online from SAGE Publications
  • Sommer, Barbara W. Hard Work and a Good Deal: The Civilian Conservation Corps in Minnesota (2008).
  • Sommer, Barbara W. "' We Had This Opportunity': African Americans and the Civilian Conservation Corps in Minnesota" in The State We're In: Reflections on Minnesota History, Annette Atkins and Deborah L. Millers, eds. (2010) pp 134–157.
  • Steely, James W. "Parks for Texas: Enduring Landscapes of the New Deal" (1999), detailing the interaction of local, state and federal agencies in organizing and guiding CCC work.
  • Waller, Robert A. "The Civilian Conservation Corps and the Emergence of South Carolina's State Park System, 1933–1942*South Carolina Historical Magazine Volume: 104#2 2003, p. 101ff.
  • Wilson, James; "Community, Civility, and Citizenship: Theatre and Indoctrination in the Civilian Conservation Corps of the 1930s" Theatre History Studies, Vol. 23, 2003, pp. 77–92

Divisi IndianSunting

  • Gower, Calvin W. "The CCC Indian Division: Aid for Depressed Americans, 1933–1942," Minnesota History 43 (Spring 1972) 7-12
  • Parman, Donald L. The Navajos and the New Deal (1969)
  • Parman, Donald L. "The Indian and the CCC," Pacific Historical Review 40 (February 1971): p. 54ff.

Sumber primerSunting

Pranala luarSunting

Civilian Conservation Corps menurut negara bagianSunting

Kamp individualSunting

GambarSunting

Dokumenter, film fitur dan TVSunting

Templat:New Deal