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Samuel Downing yang berumur 102 tahun, seorang veteran Perang Revolusi Amerika, pada 1864.

Seorang centenarian adalah seseorang yang telah hidup yang diyakini berumur 100 tahun. Pada 2012, PBB memperkirakan bahwa terdapat 316,600 centenarian yang hidup di seluruh dunia.[1]

Peristiwa saat iniSunting

 
Centenarian Kanada Muriel Duckworth, difoto pada hari ulang tahunnya yang ke-100 pada 2008.

Amerika Serikat saat ini memiliki jumlah centenarian terbesar pada setiap negara bagian dengan jumlah 53,364 jiwa menurut Sensus 2010, atau 17.3 dari 100,000 orang. Pada 2010, 82.8% dari centenarian AS adalah perempuan.[2] Jepang memiliki jumlah centenarian terbesar yang kedua, dengan perkiraan 51,376 jiwa pada September 2012.[3]

Jumlah centenarian menurut negaraSunting

Total jumlah centenarian di dunia tetap tidak diketahui. Namun diperkirakan oleh Divisi Populasi Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa sebesar 23,000 jiwa pada 1950, 110,000 pada 1990, 150,000 pada 1995, 209,000 pada 2000, 324,000 pada 2005[4] dan 455,000 pada 2009.[5]

Country Perkiraan terakhir (tahun) Perkiraan sebelumnya (tahun) Centenarian per
100,000 orang
Andorra 7 (2002)[6] 10.23
Argentina 3,487 (2010)[7] 8.69
Australia 4,252 (2011)[8] 50 (1901) 18.75
Austria 232 (1990)[9] 25 (1960)[9] 2.98
Belgia 1,559 (2010)[10] 23 (1950)[11] 14.24
Brazil 23,760 (2010)[11] 12.46
Kanada 7,569 (2011)[11] 22.31
China 48,921 (2011)[12] 4,469 (1990),[11] 17,800 (2007)[13]
3.63
Republik Ceko 625 (2011)[14] 404 (2006) 5.92
Denmark 889 (2010)[11] 19 (1960)[9] 16.08
Estonia 42 (1990)[9] 2.67
Finlandia 566 (2010)[11] 11 (1960)[9] 10.6
Prancis 20,106 (2013)[15] 7,754 (1999) 27.01[16]
Jerman 17,000 (2012)[17] 232 (1885)[18] 21
Hungaria 799 (2009)[19] 227 (1990) 7.98
Islandia 17 (1990)[9] 3 (1960)[9] 6.67
Irlandia 87 (1990)[9] 2.48
Italia 16,390 (2013)[20] 88 (1950)[11] 27.46
Jepang 51,376 (2012)[3] 111 (1950),[11] 155 (1960)[21] 34.85
Meksiko 7,441 (2010) 2,403 (1990) 6.62
Belanda 1,743 (2010)[22] 18 (1830)[23] 10.41
Selandia Baru 297 (1991)[24] 18 (1960)[9] 5.92
Norwegia 636 (2010) 49 (1950) 13.1
Peru 1,682 (2011)[25] 5.58
Polandia 2,414 (2009) 500 (1970)[26] 6.27
Portugal 268 (1990)[9] 2.72
Singapura 724 (2011)[27] 41 (1990)[9] 13.7
Slovenia 224 (2013)[28] 2 (1953)[29] 10.88[28]
Korea Selatan 1,836 (2010)[30] 961 3.67
Spanyol 12,033 (2013)[31] 5,891 (2009)[32] 26.44
Swedia 1,798 (2010) 46 (1950) 19.1
Switzerland 1,306 (2010) 10 (1860) 16.64
Thailand 17,883 (2012)[33] 34,784 (2003)[33] 26.80
Britania Raya 13,361 (2012)[34][35][36][37] 100 (1911)[38] 20.97
Amerika Serikat 53,364 (2010)[2] 2,300 (1950)[39] 17.3
Uruguay 519 (2011)[40] 15.79[41]
Perkiraan Dunia 316,600 (2012)[1] 23,000 (1950) 4.44

TradisiSunting

 
Sebuah foto 1895 dari seorang pria Chaldean dari Mosul, Iraq, yang mengaku telah berumur 107 tahun.

Di berbagai negara, orang diberikan hadiah atau ucapan selamat pada hari ulang tahun ke-100 mereka. Di Britania Raya dan wilayah Persemakmuran lainnya, Ratu mengirimkan ucapan (awalnya dalam bentuk telegram) pada hari ulang tahun ke-100 dan pasa setiap hari ulang tahun yang dimulai dengan ke-105.

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ a b "Chapter 1: Setting the Scene" (PDF). UNFPA. 2012. Diakses tanggal 11 Januari 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Meyer, Julie (December 2012). "Centenarians: 2010" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Diakses tanggal 23 January 2013. 
  3. ^ a b McCurry, Justin (14 September 2012). "Japan's centenarian population reaches more than 50,000". The Guardian. London. Diakses tanggal 15 October 2012. 
  4. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision". United Nations. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  5. ^ "World Population Ageing 2009". (PDF) ST/ESA/SER.A/295. Population Division – Department of Economic and Social Affairs. United Nations. October 2010. p.27.
  6. ^ "Andorra". Medlem.spray.se. 2002. Diakses tanggal 22 April 2013. Note: Overreported figures, the actual number is around 7 centenarians. The registration of deaths in the period 1948-1994 is considered less than 90% complete, see this table, thus a number of deceased are still included in the population statistics. 
  7. ^ Indec 2010 Cuadro – Total del país. Población total por país de nacimiento, según sexo y grupo de edad (in Spanish). 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
  8. ^ Article1Jun 2011 "3101.0 - Australian Demographic Statistics, Jun 2011". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 10 December 2011. Compare “3201.0 – Population by Age and Sex, Australian States and Territories, Jun 2010”. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 21 December 2010.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Jeune, B. (March 2000). "In Search of the First Centenarians". Demogr.mpg.de. Diakses tanggal 20 April 2013. 
  10. ^ "Structure de la population selon l'âge et le sexe: centenaires". Direction générale Statistique et Information économique (DGSIE). 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Herm, A., Cheung, S.L.K., Poulain, M. (1 June 2012). "Emergence of oldest old and centenarians: demographic analysis" (PDF). Asian Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics. hlm. 19–25 [20]. Diakses tanggal 8 March 2013. 
  12. ^ China Daily. "China has over 48,000 centenarians". 8 November 2011; People's Daily Overseas Edition "China boasts nearly 50,000 centenarians". 8 November 2011; Xinhua. "China has over 48,000 centenarians: survey". 8 November 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  13. ^ Lee, Sharon. "17.8 thousand centenarians in China". Rednet.cn. 30 December 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  14. ^ Prague Daily Monitor. "Number of centenarians rising in Czech Republic". 14 October 2011 (against 404 in November 2006: Horaova, Pavla. "Number of Centenarians Rising as Population Ageing Continues". Radio Praha. 15 November 2006).
  15. ^ Mayotte excluded. See Insee "Pyramide des âges au 1er janvier 2013". January 2013 (data)
  16. ^ 25, 83 on 1st Jan. 2010 (Insee Pyramide des âges au 1er janvier 2010, Jan. 2013); 28.19 on 1 January 2011 (Insee Pyramide des âges au 1er janvier 2011, Jan. 2013); simple arithmetic average: 27.01. The estimate is 30.66 on 1 January 2013.
  17. ^ Magazine Focus 2013-2-8, retrieved 14. Nov. 2013
  18. ^ [ Displaying Abstract ] (25 October 2010). "CENTENARIANS IN GERMANY". New York Times. Diakses tanggal 4 November 2010. 
  19. ^ "Csak 89 ember el, aki a 19. szazdban szuletett". Zona.hu. 27 February 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  20. ^ "Popolazione residente al 1° gennaio". 
  21. ^ Kannisto, Väinö (1994). "Development of Oldest-Old Mortality, 1950–1990: Evidence from 28 Developed Countries". Monographs on Population Aging. No.1. Odense University Press: Odense, Denmark. 108 pp. Updated 1 February 1999. Table5.
  22. ^ Garssen, Joop and Harmsen, Carel. "More Male Centenarians". Statistics Netherlands (CBS). 16 September 2010.
  23. ^ 1830 Census (in Dutch). Volkstellingen.nl. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  24. ^ PMID 9560074 (PubMed)
    Citation will be completed automatically in a few minutes. Jump the queue or expand by hand
  25. ^ EleccionesPeru and Elcomercio.pe. "1,682 electors are over 100 years". Lima, Peru. 7 February 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  26. ^ "Specemerytura dla stulatka (in Polish)". Money.pl. 30 August 2006. Diakses tanggal 5 December 2012. 
  27. ^ Long, Cheryl; Tai, Janice (18 December 2011). "S'pore's rising centenarians". Thestar.com. Star Publications (M) Bhd. Diakses tanggal 28 April 2013. 
  28. ^ a b Dolenc, Danilo (2012). "Prebivalstvo po starosti in spolu, 1. julij 2012 in 1. januar 2013". Statistični letopis 2013. Statistični urad Republike Slovenije. Diakses tanggal 18 August 2013. 
  29. ^ "Prebivalstvo" (PDF). Statistični letopis Republike Slovenije 1966. Statistični urad Republike Slovenije. 1966. Diakses tanggal 18 August 2013. 
  30. ^ "Number of Centenarians Doubles Over 5 Years". Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2011. Diakses tanggal 8 March 2013. 
  31. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadistica (22 November 2013). "Instituto Nacional de Estadistica 2013" (PDF). Statistical Bulletin. hlm. 4. Diakses tanggal 22 November 2013. Spain (2013) 12,033. 
  32. ^ "Indicadores demográficos – G1.2. Pirámide de población a nivel nacional, a 1 de enero de 2009" (in Spanish). 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  33. ^ a b "POPULATION FROM REGISTRATION RECORD BY AGE GROUP AND SEX, WHOLE KINGDOM: 2003 - 2012". National Statistical Office of Thailand. Diakses tanggal 7 December 2013.  Templat:XLSlink
  34. ^ "Latest official estimate for the number of centenarians in the UK". BBC News. 26 December 2013. 
  35. ^ The Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (27 September 2013). "AGED 85 AND OVER, NORTHERN IRELAND 2012 (& REVISED 2001-2011) – STATISTICAL REPORT". hlm. 1. 
  36. ^ "Centenarians increase five-fold over 30 years, ONS says". BBC. 27 September 2013. Diakses tanggal 17 October 2013. 
  37. ^ "Big rise in number of Scottish centenarians". BBC. 1 October 2013. Diakses tanggal 17 October 2013. 
  38. ^ "Ninety Times More Centenarians In UK Than In 1911". Medical News Today. 29 September 2007. Diakses tanggal 9 March 2013. 
  39. ^ Krach, Constance A. and Velkoff, Victoria A (1999). "Centenarians in the United States". Current Population Reports (Series P23-199RV). U.S. Bureau of the Census. U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C. iii + 18 pp.
  40. ^ "Población por área y sexo, según grupo quinquenal de edades". Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Uruguay). Diakses tanggal 10 May 2013. 
  41. ^ Total population: 3,285,877 + 437 homeless, per 2011 census data.

Bacaan tambahanSunting

  • Koch, Tina; Kralik, Debbie; Power, Charmaine (2005). 100 Years Old: 24 Australian Centenarians Tell Their Stories. Camberwell, Vic: Viking. ISBN 0-670-02872-X. 

Lihat pulaSunting