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Antifeminisme adalah seuatu istilah yang ditujukan kepada penentangan terhadap beberapa atau seluruh bentuk feminisme. Penentangan ini mengambil berbagai bentuk dari berbagai masa dan budaya. Contohnya, kaum antifeminis pada akhir 1800an dan awal 1900an menentang hak suara wanita, sementara kaum antifeminis pada akhir abad ke-20 di Amerika Serikat menentang Amendemen Hak Kesetaraan.[1][2] Antifeminisme dimotivasikan oleh kepercayaan bahwa teori-teori patriarkhi feminis dan ketidakmajuan yang dialami oleh wanita dalam masyarakat adalah salah kaprah atau dilebih-lebihkan;[3][4] bahwa feminisme sebagai sebuah gerakan yang mendorong misandri dan berakibat pada tersainginya atau tertindasnya kaum pria; atau dimotori oleh penentangan umum terhadap hak asasi wanita.[5][6][7][8]

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ Ford, Lynne E. (2009). Encyclopedia of Women and American Politics. Infobase Publishing. hlm. 36. ISBN 978-1-4381-1032-5. 
  2. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama maddux
  3. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama flood
  4. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama bbc
  5. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Kimmel
  6. ^ Blee, K. (1998). Antifeminism. In W. Mankiller (Ed.), The reader's companion to U.S. Women's history. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    • "The two major waves of antifeminist activity coincide with the two waves of the women's rights movement: the campaign to secure female suffrage in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and the feminist movement of the late twentieth century. In both periods, those holding a traditional view of women's place in the home and family tried to advance their cause by joining with other conservative groups to forestall efforts to extend women's rights."
  7. ^ Mertz, Thomas J. "Antifeminism." New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Ed. Maryanne Cline Horowitz. Vol. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005. 94–98. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 30 Sept. 2015.
    • "Antifeminism, then, repudiates critiques of male supremacy and resists efforts to eliminate it (often accompanied by dismissal of the idea that change is possible). Note that this definition of antifeminism limits its reference to reactions against critiques of gender-based hierarchies and efforts to relieve the oppression of women."
  8. ^ Howard, Angela Marie. "Antifeminism." The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History.: Oxford University Press, 2008. Oxford Reference. 2008. Date Accessed 30 Sep. 2015
    • "Reform activity that challenged either the subordination of women to men or the patriarchal limitation of women's status provoked an antifeminist response that included an intellectual and political campaign to halt progress toward women's rights and equality."

Bacaan tambahanSunting

  • Nielsen, Kim E. (2001). Un-American womanhood : antiradicalism, antifeminism, and the first Red Scare. Columbus: Ohio State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8142-5080-8. 
  • Redefining the New Woman, 1920–1963 (Antifeminism in America: A Collection of Readings from the Literature of the Opponents to U.S. Feminism, 1848 to the Present), Howard-Zophy
  • Faludi, Susan (1991). Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women. Crown Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-517-57698-8. 
  • Kampwirth, Karen. 2006. "Resisting the Feminist Threat: Antifeminist Politics in Post-Sandinista Nicaragua" NWSA Journal. Vol. 18, No 2. (Summer). pp. 73–100.
  • Kampwirth, Karen. 2003. "Arnoldo Alemán Takes on the NGOs: Antifeminism and the New Populism in Nicaragua" Latin American Politics and Society. Vol. 45. No. 2. (Summer) 2003. pp. 133–58.
  • Kampwirth, Karen. 1998. "Feminism, Antifeminism, and Electoral Politics in Post-War Nicaragua and El Salvador" Political Science Quarterly Vol. 113, No. 2. (Summer) pp. 259–79.
  • Cynthia D. Kinnard, Antifeminism in American Thought: An Annotated Bibliography (Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., 1986, ISBN 0-8161-8122-5)
  • Kipnis, Laura, The Female Thing: Dirt, Sex, Envy, Vulnerability (Pantheon, 2006).
  • Mansbridge, Jane: Why We Lost the ERA, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1986
  • Nielsen, Kim E. Un-American Womanhood: Antiradicalism, Antifeminism, and the First Red Scare
  • Schreiber, Ronnee (2008). Righting Feminism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533181-3. 
  • Swanson, G. Antifeminism in America: A Historical Reader (2000) ISBN 0-8153-3437-0

Pranala luarSunting

  • ^ Warren Farrell "The Myth of Male Power," Berkeley Publishing Group, 1996. Books.google.com.au. 1996. ISBN 978-0-425-15523-3. Diakses tanggal 2014-08-01.