The yen (bahasa Jepang: , Hepburn: en, symbol: ¥; code: JPY; also abbreviated as JP¥) is the official currency of Japan. It is the third most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar and the euro.[3] It is also widely used as a reserve currency after the U.S. dollar, the euro, and the pound sterling.

Yen Jepang
日本円 (Jepang)
JPY coins 2.png
Coins of the Japanese yen
ISO 4217
KodeJPY
Nomor392
Eksponen0
Satuan
Subsatuan
 ​1100sen (錢)
 ​11000rin (厘)
JamakBahasa mata uang ini tidak memiliki perbedaan jamak morfologis.
Simbol¥ (international)
(Japan—present day)
(Japan—traditional)
Uang kertas
 Sering dipakai¥1000, ¥5000, ¥10,000
 Jarang dipakai¥2000
Uang koin
 Sering dipakai¥1, ¥5, ¥10, ¥50, ¥100, ¥500
Demografi
Pengguna resmi Japan
Pengguna tak resmi Myanmar[1]
 Zimbabwe
Penerbitan
Bank sentralBank of Japan
 Situs webwww.boj.or.jp
PencetakNational Printing Bureau
 Situs webwww.npb.go.jp
Arta YasaJapan Mint
 Situs webwww.mint.go.jp
Penilaian
Inflasi0.3% at January 2017
 SumberStatistics Japan,[2] March 2016

The concept of the yen was a component of the Meiji government's modernization program of Japan's economy, which postulated the pursuit of a uniform currency throughout the country, modelled after the European decimal currency system. Before the Meiji Restoration, Japan's feudal fiefs all issued their own money, hansatsu, in an array of incompatible denominations. The New Currency Act of 1871 did away with these and established the yen, which was defined as 1,5 g (0,048 troy ons) of gold, or 24,26 g (0,780 troy ons) of silver, as the new decimal currency. The former han (fiefs) became prefectures and their mints private chartered banks, which initially retained the right to print money. To bring an end to this situation, the Bank of Japan was founded in 1882 and given a monopoly on controlling the money supply.[4]

Following World War II the yen lost much of its prewar value. To stabilize the Japanese economy the exchange rate of the yen was fixed at ¥360 per US$1 as part of the Bretton Woods system. When that system was abandoned in 1971, the yen became undervalued and was allowed to float. The yen had appreciated to a peak of ¥271 per US$1 in 1973, then underwent periods of depreciation and appreciation due to the 1973 oil crisis, arriving at a value of ¥227 per US$1 by 1980.

Since 1973, the Japanese government has maintained a policy of currency intervention, and the yen is therefore under a "dirty float" regime. The Japanese government focused on a competitive export market, and tried to ensure a low exchange rate for the yen through a trade surplus. The Plaza Accord of 1985 temporarily changed this situation: the exchange rate fell from its average of ¥239 per US$1 in 1985 to ¥128 in 1988 and led to a peak rate of ¥80 against the U.S. dollar in 1995, effectively increasing the value of Japan’s GDP in US dollar terms to almost that of the United States. Since that time, however, the world price of the yen has greatly decreased. The Bank of Japan maintains a policy of zero to near-zero interest rates and the Japanese government has previously had a strict anti-inflation policy.[5]

Pronunciation and etymologySunting

Yen derives from the Japanese word Templat:Eigo, which borrows its phonetic reading from Chinese yuan, similar to North Korean won and South Korean won. Originally, the Chinese had traded silver in mass called sycees and when Spanish and Mexican silver coins arrived, the Chinese called them "silver rounds" (Hanzi: 銀圓; Pinyin: yínyuán) for their circular shapes.[6] The coins and the name also appeared in Japan. While the Chinese eventually replaced ; with ,[note 1] the Japanese continued to use the same word, which was given the shinjitai form in reforms at the end of World War II.

The spelling and pronunciation "yen" is standard in English because when Japan was first encountered by Europeans around the 16th century, Japanese /e/ () and /we/ () both had been pronounced [je] and Portuguese missionaries had spelled them "ye".[note 2] By the middle of the 18th century, /e/ and /we/ came to be pronounced [e] as in modern Japanese, although some regions retain the [je] pronunciation. Walter Henry Medhurst, who had neither been to Japan nor met any Japanese, having consulted mainly a Japanese-Dutch dictionary, spelled some "e"s as "ye" in his An English and Japanese, and Japanese and English Vocabulary (1830).[8] In the early Meiji era, James Curtis Hepburn, following Medhurst, spelled all "e"s as "ye" in his A Japanese and English dictionary (1867); in Japanese, e and i are slightly palatalized, somewhat as in Russian.[9] That was the first full-scale Japanese-English/English-Japanese dictionary, which had a strong influence on Westerners in Japan and probably prompted the spelling "yen". Hepburn revised most "ye"s to "e" in the 3rd edition (1886)[10] to mirror the contemporary pronunciation, except "yen".[11] This was probably already fixed and has remained so ever since.

 
Uang logam Jepang, ¥1, ¥5, ¥10, ¥50, ¥100, ¥500

Yen adalah mata uang Jepang. Simbol: ¥; atau dalam bahasa Jepang: en ().

SejarahSunting

 
1000 yen

Pemerintah Jepang menetapkan mata uang Yen sejak 27 Juni 1871 berdasarkan Shinka jōrei (peraturan pemerintahan tentang mata uang baru). Sebagai lambang digunakan tanda ¥ dan menurut ISO 4217 dilambangkan sebagai JPY. Bila ditulis dengan romaji menjadi Yen dan bukan En, karena di akhir zaman Keshogunan Tokugawa, aksara katakana エ (e) dibaca sebagai "je". Pada waktu itu, kota Edo ditulis sebagai "Yedo", Pulau Ezo sebagai "Yezo", dan Ebisu ditulis sebagai "Yebisu".

Asal usulSunting

Ada beberapa penjelasan tentang asal usul penggunaan aksara kanji en (, lingkaran) untuk menulis lambang mata uang Jepang. Salah satunya adalah tradisi orang Jepang melambangkan uang dengan lingkaran yang dibentuk dari jari telunjuk dan ibu jari. Ōkuma Shigenobu mengatakan semua orang Jepang pasti tahu bahwa aksara kanji untuk "lingkaran" berarti uang. Penjelasan lain mengatakan uang logam bentuknya bundar, sehingga aksara kanji untuk lingkaran digunakan untuk menyebut uang. Pada waktu itu di Hong Kong dikeluarkan uang logam bertuliskan Hong Kong ichi en (香港壱圓), dan ditiru pemerintah Jepang yang memakai aksara kanji 圓 untuk melambangkan mata uang Jepang, namun menggunakan aksara kanji bentuk baru.

SubunitSunting

Satuan mata uang Jepang sebelum tahun 1953:

  • sen (銭): 1/100 dari 1 Yen (¥1 = 100 sen)
  • rin (厘): 1/1000 dari 1 Yen (1 sen = 10 rin, ¥1 = 1000 rin)

Berdasarkan undang-undang pengaturan mata uang 1953, pemakaian satuan sen dan rin tidak dilarang menurut hukum, tetapi secara praktik tidak dipakai lagi. Sekarang, satuan sen dan rin hanya digunakan dalam istilah bursa saham dan kurs valuta asing.

KursSunting

Sebagai perbandingan, berikut adalah nilai tukar mata uang lain terhadap mata uang yen pada 12 September 2014 menurut XE.com:

  • 1 USD = 107,023 JPY
  • 1 EUR = 138,541 JPY
  • 1 AUD = 97,0591 JPY
  • 1 CAD = 97,0327 JPY
  • 1 CHF = 114,642 JPY
  • 1 CNY/RMB = 17,4735 JPY
  • 1 GBP = 174,211 JPY
  • 1 HKD = 13,8311 JPY
  • 1 IDR = 0,00905402 JPY
  • 1 INR = 1,76519 JPY
  • 1 KHR = 0,0263735 JPY
  • 1 KRW = 0,103595 JPY
  • 1 MYR = 33,5313 JPY
  • 1 NZD = 87,5611 JPY
  • 1 PHP = 2,43792 JPY
  • 1 SGD = 84,9219 JPY
  • 1 THB = 3,32919 JPY
  • 1 TWD = 3,57002 JPY
  • 1 VND = 0,00503837 JPY
  • 1 ZAR = 9,76710 JPY
  1. ^ Aung, Htin Lynn (January 30, 2019). "CBM permits border trades in yen and yuan denominations". The Myanmar Times. 
  2. ^ "Statistics Bureau Home Page/Consumer Price Index". Stat.go.jp. Diakses tanggal 2016-06-12. 
  3. ^ "Foreign exchange turnover in April 2013: preliminary global results" (PDF). Bank for International Settlements. Diakses tanggal February 7, 2015. 
  4. ^ Mitsura Misawa (2007). Cases on International Business and Finance in Japanese Corporations. Hong Kong University Press. hlm. 152. 
  5. ^ "History of Japanese Yen". Currency History. 
  6. ^ a b Ryuzo Mikami [ja], an article about the yen in Heibonsha World Encyclopedia, Kato Shuichi(ed.), Vol. 3, Tokyo: Heibonsha, 2007.
  7. ^ S. Hashimoto (1950). 国語音韻の変遷 [The History of Japanese Phonology] (dalam bahasa Jepang). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. 
  8. ^ Medhurst (1830), hlm. 296.
  9. ^ Hepburn (1867).
  10. ^ "明治学院大学図書館 - 和英語林集成デジタルアーカイブス". www.meijigakuin.ac.jp. 
  11. ^ 明治学院大学図書館 - 和英語林集成デジタルアーカイブス (dalam bahasa Japanese). Meijigakuin.ac.jp. Diakses tanggal 2016-06-12. 


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