Wikipedia:IPA untuk bahasa Hindi dan Urdu

Templat:Keterangan IPA

Grafik di bawah ini menunjukkan cara Alfabet Fonetik Internasional (AFI) mewakili pengucapan berbahasa Hindi dan Urdu dalam artikel-artikel Wikipedia. Untuk panduan menambahkan karakter AFI ke dalam artikel-artikel Wikipedia, lihat {{IPA-hns}}, {{IPA-hi}}, {{IPA-ur}} dan Wikipedia:Gaya Manual/Pengucapan § Memasukkan karakter IPA.


AFI[1] Hindi[1] ISO 15919 [1] Urdu Penyetaraan dengan Bahasa Inggris
[[|b]] ba ب butter
[[|bʱ]] bha بھ abhor
[[|d]][2] da د the
[[|dʱ]][2] dha دھ within (as a dhh sound, tongue touches palate, strong air exhalation)
[[|dʒ]] ja ج jazz
[[|dʒʱ]] jha جھ hedgehog (strong jhh sound)
[[|ɖ]][2] ḍa ڈ gourd
[[|ɖʱ]][2] ḍha ڈھ adhere
[[|f]] फ़ fa ف food
[[|ɡ]] ga گ green
[[|ɡʱ]] gha گھ big headed
[[|ɣ]] ग़ ġa غ similar to a French r (mostly Urdu; sometimes substituted for [ɡ] (ग) in Hindi).
[[|ɦ]] ha ح head
[[|j]] ya ی yak
[[|k]] ka ک sky
[[|kʰ]] kha کھ car
[[|l]] la ل leaf
[[|m]] ma م much
[[|n]] na ن not
[[|ɳ]] ṇa ن burn (mostly Hindi; Urdu uses [n] (ن)).
[[|ɲ]] ña نیْا roughly like canyon (mostly Hindi; Urdu uses [n] (ن)).
[[|ŋ]] ṅa ن bank
[[|p]] pa پ sport
[[|pʰ]] pha پھ pencil
[[|q]] क़ qa ق quail (k in the throat, tongue not touching palate) (mostly Urdu; sometimes substituted for [k] (क) in Hindi)
[[|ɾ]] ra ر American butter (r may be trilled[3])
[[|ɽ]] ड़ ṛa ڑ garter (GA)
[[|ɽʱ]] ढ़ ṛha ڑھ as [ɽ] plus h; somewhat as the US: warhead
[[|s]] sa ث، س، ص sue
[[|ʂ]] ṣa ش/س shrimp
(mostly Hindi; Urdu uses either [ʃ] (ش) or [s] (س)).
[[|ʃ]] śa ش shoe
[[|t]][2] ta ت، ط still
[[|tʰ]][2] tha تھ tip
[[|tʃ]] ca چ catch
[[|tʃʰ]] cha چھ choose
[[|ʈ]][2] ṭa ٹ carts
[[|ʈʰ]][2] ṭha ٹھ trip
[[|ʋ]][4] va و varies between w and v
[[|x]] ख़ k͟ha خ Scottish Loch (mostly Urdu; sometimes substituted for [kʰ] (ख) in Hindi)
[[|z]] ज़ za ذ، ز، ض، ظ zen
[[|ʒ]] श़ zha ژ pleasure
AFI Hindi ISO 15919 Urdu Penyetaraan dengan Bahasa Inggris
[[|aː]] आ, पा ā آ, بَا far
[[|eː]] ए, पे ē اے، بے Yale
[[|ɛː]] ऐ, पै ai اَے، بَے hen
[[|ə]][5] अ, प a اَ، بَ strut
[[|iː]][6] ई, पी ī اِی، بِی feed
[[|ɪ]][6] इ, पि i اِ، بِ dill
[[|oː]] ओ, पो ō او، بو story
[[|ɔː]] औ, पौ au اَو، بَو dog
[[|uː]][6] ऊ, पू ū اُو، بُو moon
[[|ʊ]][6] उ, पु u اُ، بُ wood
[[|rɪ]] ऋ, पृ ری، پر (mostly Hindi, Urdu uses [r] (ر)).
[[|◌̃]] ـں nasal vowel faun
([ãː, õː], etc.)
IPA Hindi ISO 15919 Urdu Approximate English equivalent
[[|ˈ◌]] stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
[[|◌ː]] doubled consonant
(placed after doubled consonant)


  1. ^ a b c In the letter series beginning with क, क = क् + अ; ka = k + a. Thus 'क' has the inherent vowel 'अ', giving 'क' without added vowel sign using diacritics (The halanta "्" is removed). But the IPA shown here has the consonant 'k' only & does not include the vowel 'a'.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h To an English-speaker's ear, [ʈ ʈʰ t tʰ] all sound like /t/, and [ɖ ɖʱ d dʱ] all sound like /d/. However, to a Hindi-Urdu-speaker's ear, each is a very different sound. [t d] are like the Spanish or French [t d], with the tongue touching the teeth. [tʰ dʱ] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English [[[|θ]] [[|ð]]] (the th and dh sounds). Hindi-Urdu [ʈ ɖ] are pronounced with the tongue further back, touching behind the teeth mid-palate. [ʈʰ ɖʱ] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English t d, and [ʈ] is how they hear the English t after an s (as in st).
  3. ^ /ɾ/ can surface as a trill [r], mostly as an allophone in word-initial and syllable-final positions, and geminate /ɾː/ is always a trill, e.g. zarā [zəɾaː] (ज़राذرا 'little') versus well-trilled zarrā [zəraː] (ज़र्राذرّہ 'particle').
  4. ^ [v], [w] and intermediate [[[|ʋ]]] are allophonic in Hindi-Urdu. Some words, such as vrat ('व्रत', 'ورت', religious fast), are pronounced with [v]; others, such as pakwan ('पकवान', 'پكوان', cooked food), are pronounced with [w].
  5. ^ /ɛ/ occurs as a conditioned allophone of /ə/ near an /h/ surrounded on both sides by schwas. Usually, the second schwa undergoes syncopation, and the resultant is just an /ɛ/ preceding an /h/.
  6. ^ a b c d /iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralised to [i], [u] at the end of a word.