Turanisme

Turanisme, juga dikenal sebagai pan-Turanianisme atau pan-Turanisme, adalah sebuah gerakan budaya dan politik nasionalis yang memproklamasikan kebutuhan untuk krjasama dekat atau penyatuan politik antara (terkait budaya, linguistik atau etnis) suku-suku bangsa asal Asia Dalam dan Asia Tengah[1] seperti Finlandia, Jepang,[2] Korea,[3][4] Sami, Samoyed, Hongaria, Turk, Mongol, Manchu[5] dan kelompok etnis kecil lainnya sebagai alat pengamanan dan kemudian berbagi kepentingan serta melawan ancaman-ancaman yang diberlakukan oleh kebijakan-kebijakan kekuatan besar Eropa. Gerakan tersebut lahir pada abad ke-19 untuk melawan dampak ideologi-ideologi pan-nasionalis seperti pan-Jermanisme dan pan-Slavisme.[6] Gagasan "persaudaraan dan kolaborasi Turania" dipinjam dari konsep pan-Slavik "persaudaraan dan kolaborasi Slavik".[7]

Referensi dan catatanSunting

  1. ^ "A „turáni népek” elnevezés már átment a köztudatba és azt kiváló angol, francia, amerikai, német és más tudósok is állandóan használják a tudományosabb, de hosszabb „ural-altai” elnevezés helyett, amellyel az teljesen egyértelmű. Mi turáni eredetű népek alatt Európában főleg a finneket, az észteket, a magyarokat, a bolgárokat és törököket értjük, Ázsiában pedig főleg az egész, nagyon elterjedt török (turk) népcsaládot, mely jelenleg Kis-Ázsia, a kaukázusi táj, Szibéria, Közép- és Kelet-Ázsia (jakutok) nagy részét foglalja magában, továbbá a mongol és mandzsu-tunguz csoportot, mely előbbihez főleg az északi kínaiak, utóbbiakhoz a japániak is tartoznak." _______ "The 'Turanian peoples' denomination has already become established, and it is frequently used by excellent English, French, American, German and other scholars, in place of the more scientific but longer term 'Ural-Altaic', with which it is completely identical. Under the Turanian peoples of Europe we mainly understand the Finns, the Estonians, the Hungarians, the Bulgarians and Turks, and in Asia the widely dispersed family of Turkic peoples who at present encompass large parts of Asia Minor, the Caucasus, Siberia, Central and East Asia (Yakuts), as well as the Mongol and Manchu-Tungusic groups, into the first of which mainly the northern Chinese belong to, and into the latter the Japanese too." ______ PAIKERT Alajos: A turáni népek világhivatása. In: Turán. Vol.XIX. No. 1-4. 1936. p. 19-22. http://real-j.mtak.hu/10683/1/MTA_Turan_1936.pdf
  2. ^ LEVENT, Sinan: Common Asianist intellectual history in Turkey and Japan: Turanism. 2015. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280490550_Common_Asianist_intellectual_history_in_Turkey_and_Japan_Turanism#pf10
  3. ^ AI Hyung Il: The Cultural Comparative Perspective in Torii Ryuzo's "Far East": The Search for Japan's Antiquity in Prehistoric Korea. p. 5. http://congress.aks.ac.kr/korean/files/2_1358749979.pdf Diarsipkan 2020-05-05 di Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ "Many Japanese scholars expressed the idea of Nissen dōsoron (Theory of common ancestry between Japanese and Koreans), which maintained a common origin as well as inferior and superior positions of Koreans and Japanese. Other Japanese scholars concluded that Korea had been historically dominated by influences from the continent, particularly Manchuria." ALLEN, Chizuko: Ch'oe Namson at the Height of Japanese Imperialism. In: Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies. Vol. 5 No. 1. 2005. p. 27-49. http://sjeas.skku.edu/upload/201312/Chizuko%20T.PDF Diarsipkan 2020-03-23 di Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ "圖地布分族民ンラツ Ethnographical Card of Turanians (Uralo-Atlaians)". www.raremaps.com. 
  6. ^ "FARKAS Ildikó: A magyar turanizmus török kapcsolatai ("The Turkish connections of Hungarian Turanism")". www.valosagonline.hu [Valóság (2013 I.-IV)]. 2013. Diakses tanggal 7 March 2014. 
  7. ^ "Britannica.com". 

Bacaan tambahanSunting

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  •   Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (1922). "Pan-Turanianism". Encyclopædia Britannica (edisi ke-12). 
  • Paksoy, H.B. (1991). ‘Basmachi’: TurkestanNational Liberation Movement 1916-1930s. In Modern Encyclopedia of Religions in Russia and the Soviet Union (Vol 4). Florida: Academic International Press. ESSAYS ON CENTRAL ASIA by H.B. PAKSOY | CARRIE Books
  • Pekesen, Berna (2019), Pan-Turkism, EGO - European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, retrieved: March 17, 2021 (pdf).
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