Thomas Say

Thomas Say (27 Juni 1787 – 10 Oktober 1834) adalah seorang ahli entomologi, konkologi, dan juga herpetologi berkewarganegaraan Amerika Serikat. Dia dikenal atas keterlibatannya dalam mendalami ilmu tentang serangga dan kerang. Thomas telah berkontribusi dalam berbagai jurnal ilmiah, dan terlibat dalam sebuah ekspedisi ilmiah ke Florida, Georgia, Pegunungan Rocky, Meksiko, yang dipimpin oleh Stephen Harriman Long tahun 1820.[1] Thomas Say dijuluki sebagai "father of American descriptive entomology" dan "American conchology". Selain itu, dia juga menjadi pustakawan di Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, juga menjadi seorang kurator di American Philosophical Society tahun 1821 sampai tahun 1827, dan sebagai profesor sejarah alam (natural history) tahun 1822 sampai tahun 1828 di University of Pennsylvania, Amerika Serikat.[1][2][3]

Thomas Say
Thomas Say.jpg
Potret Thomas Say (1818)
karya Charles Willson Peale
Lahir(1787-06-27)27 Juni 1787
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Meninggal10 Oktober 1834(1834-10-10) (umur 47)
New Harmony, Indiana
KebangsaanAmerika Serikat
Dikenal atas"father of descriptive entomology" di Amerika Serikat
Karier ilmiah
BidangSejarah alam, Entomologi
InstitusiAcademy of Natural Sciences

Kehidupan awalSunting

Thomas Say lahir di Philadelphia, tanggal 27 Juni 1787. Ayahnya ialah Dr. Benjamin Say, seorang Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Amerika Serikat, dan ibunya bernama Ann Bartram Bonsall.[4] Thomas Say adalah cicit John Bartram, seorang naturalis, dan keponakan buyut dari William Bartram.[5] Rumah Thomas Say bersebelahan dengan peternakan keluarga Bartram di kota kingessing, Philadelphia County. Di sekitar peternakan itu, ada taman keluarga Bartram, dan Thomas Say sering mengunjungi taman itu untuk melihat dan mengambil berbagai jenis kupu-kupu dan kumbang, bersama paman buyutnya William Bartram.

KarierSunting

Tahun 1812, Thomas Say menjadi salah satu pelopor didirikannya Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Philadelphia (Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia, disingkat ANSP). Kemudian pada tahun 1816, Say bertemu dengan Charles Alexandre Lesueur, seorang naturalis, ahli malakologi, dan ahli ichthyologist asal Prancis, dimana yang kemudian, Leuseur menjadi salah satu akademisi di ANSP dan kurator hingga tahun 1824.

Selama berada di ANSP, Say mempublikasikan karyanya tentang kehidupan serangga, yang dia sebut Entomologi Amerika. Untuk menghasilkan karya tersebut, Say telah mengumpulkan berbagai jenis serangga, dan melakukan banyak ekspedisi ke berbagai daerah, bahkan hingga ke tanah adat masyarakat Indian di Amerika. Dia juga melakukan penelitian bersama Gerhard Troost, seorang ahli geologi dan bersama beberapa anggota lainnya dari ANSP, termasuk William Maclure, ke kawasan lepas pantai Georgia dan Florida, Amerika Serikat, pada tahun 1818. Melalui penelitian dan penjelajahan tersebut, Say berhasil menggambarkan lebih dari 1.000 spesies kumbang baru dan lebih dari 400 serangga. Sementara itu, bukunya Entimologi Amerika diterbitkan selama sebelas tahun ke dalam 3 volume.[6]

WarisanSunting

Selain bisa menemukan lebih dari 1.000 spesies baru kumbang, dan lebih dari 400 spesies serangga, Say juga menemukan tujuh spesies ular, selama dalam melakukan ekspedisi ke berbagai daerah.[7][8] Berikut beberapa warisan spesies yang berhasil dia temukan:

Berbagai karya tulisSunting

Berikut adalah beberapa daftar buku yang telah dipublikasikan oleh Thomas Say:

  • Say, T. 1817. Deskripsi tujuh spesies kerang air tawar dan darat di Amerika, yang tidak dicatat dalam sistem. Part 1. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1(1), 13–16. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1817. Deskripsi tujuh spesies kerang air tawar dan darat di Amerika, yang tidak dicatat dalam sistem. Part 2. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1(2), 17–18. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1817. Beberapa deskripsi spesies baru pada Serangga Amerika Utara. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1(2), 19–23. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1817. Some account of the insect known by the name of Hessian Fly, and of a parasitic insect that feeds on it. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1(3), 43–48. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1817. On a new genus of the Crustacea, and the species on which it is established. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1(4), 49–52. (Read July 8, 1817) (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1817. An account of the Crustacea of the United States. Part 1. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1(4), 57–64. (Read August 5, 1817) (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1817. An account of the Crustacea of the United States. Part 2. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1(5), 65–83. (Read August 5, 1817) (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1817. An account of the Crustacea of the United States. Part 3. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1(6), 97–101. (Read August 5, 1817) (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1817. Description of new species of land and fresh water shells of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1(6), 123–126. (Read October 28, 1817) (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1817. An account of the Crustacea of the United States. Part 4. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1(6), 155–169. (Read November 4, 1817) (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1818. An account of the Crustacea of the United States. Part 5. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1, 235–253. (Read November 11, 1817) (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1818. Account of two new genera, and several new species, of fresh water and land snails. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1(7), 276–284. (Read May 25, 1818) (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1818. An account of the Crustacea of the United States. Part 6. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1, 313–319. (Read June 10, 1818) (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1818. An account of the Crustacea of the United States. Part 7. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1, 374–401. (Read June 10, 1818) (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1818. Notes on Professor Green's paper on the Amphibia, published in the September number of this journal. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1(7), 405–407. (Read October 6, 1818) (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1818. An account of the Crustacea of the United States. Part 8. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1, 423–441. (Read June 10, 1818) (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1818. Observations on some of the animals described in the account of the Crustacea of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1, 442–444. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1818. Appendix to the account of the Crustacea of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1, 445–458. (Read December 1, 1818) (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1818. Description of a new genus of fresh water bivalve shells. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1, 459–460. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1818. Description of three new species of the genus Naesa. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1, 482–485. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1821. Descriptions of the Thysanourae of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 2, 11–13. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1821. Descriptions of the Arachnides of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 2, 59–81. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1821. Descriptions of the Myriapodae of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 2, 102–113. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1821. Descriptions of Univalve shells of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 2, 149–178. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1823. Descriptions of Dipterous insects of the United States. Part 1. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 3(1), 9–53. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1823. Descriptions of Dipterous insects of the United States. Part 2. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 3(1), 73–104. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1823. Descriptions of Coleopterous insects. Part 1. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 3(1), 139–215. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1824. Descriptions of Coleopterous insects. Part 2. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 3(2), 238–281. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1824. Descriptions of Coleopterous insects. Part 3. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 3(2), 298–330. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1824. Descriptions of Coleopterous insects. Part 4. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 3(2), 403–462. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1824. Descriptions of Coleopterous insects, collected in the late expedition to the Rocky Mountains. Part 1. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 4(1), 83–99. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1824. An account of some of the fossil shells of Maryland. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 4(1), 124–154. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1825. On the fresh water and land Tortoises of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 4(2), 203–219. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1825. Description of three new species of Coluber, inhabiting the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 4(2), 237–241. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1825. On two genera and several species of Crinoidea. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 4(2), 289–295. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1825. Descriptions of new Hemipterous insects, collected in the expedition to the Rocky Mountains, performed by order of Mr. Calhoun, Secretary of War, under command of Major Long. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 4(2), 307–344. (BHL link)
  • Say, T., and G. Ord. 1825. Description of a new species of Mammalia, whereon a genus is supposed to be founded. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 4(2), 352–355. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1825. Descriptions of new species of Hister and Hololepta, inhabiting the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 5(1), 32–47. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1825. Descriptions of some new species of fresh water and land shells, inhabiting the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 5(1), 119–131. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1825. On the species of the Linnaean genus Asterias, inhabiting the coast of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 5(1), 141–153. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1825. Descriptions of new species of Coleopterous insects inhabiting the United States. Part 1. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 5(1), 160–204. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1827. Descriptions of marine shells, recently discovered on the coast of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 5(2), 207–220. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1827. On the species of the Linnaean genus Echinus, inhabiting the coast of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 5(2), 225–228. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1827. Descriptions of new species of Coleopterous insects inhabiting the United States. Part 2. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 5(2), 237–283. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1827. Descriptions of new species of Coleopterous insects inhabiting the United States. Part 3. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 5(2), 293–316. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1829. Description of new Dipterous insects of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 6(1), 149–178. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1830. Description of North American Dipterous insects. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 6(2), 183–188. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1830. Description of new North American Hemipterous insects. Part 1. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 6(2), 235–244. (BHL link)
  • Say, T. 1830. Description of new North American Hemipterous insects. Part 2. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 6(2), 299–314. (BHL link)

Kehidupan pribadiSunting

Thomas Say menikah dengan Lucy Way Sistare Say (14 Oktober 1801 – 15 November 1886) secara diam-diam pada 4 Januari 1827. Lucy Say merupakan seorang naturalis dan seniman ilmiah berkewarganegaraan Amerika Serikat. Lucy Say menjadi wanita pertama yang bergabung menjadi anggota Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (ANSP) pada tanggal 26 Oktober 1841. Thomas Say meinggal tanggal 10 Oktober 1834 di Philadelphia, Amerika Serikat.[10]

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ a b "Thomas Say". www.britannica.com (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diakses tanggal 5 September 2020. 
  2. ^ Mallis, 1971
  3. ^ Pitzer, 1989
  4. ^ Fisher, George. "Thomas Say". Philadelphia Reflections (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diakses tanggal 5 September 2020. 
  5. ^ "Genealogical Records Copied from the Bible of Thomas Say". The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography (dalam bahasa Inggris). XXIX: 219–222. 1905. Diakses tanggal 5 September 2020. 
  6. ^ "Thomas Say". www.findagrave.com (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diakses tanggal 5 September 2020. 
  7. ^ Schmidt, Karl P.; Davis, D. Dwight (1941). Field Book of Snakes of the United States and Canada. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. 365 pp. ("History of the Study of Snakes in the United States", Thomas Say, hlm. 12).
  8. ^ Hans G. Hansson. "Charles-Alexandre Lesueur". Biographical Etymology of Marine Organism Names. Göteborgs universitet. Diakses tanggal 5 September 2020. 
  9. ^ Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. ("Say", hlm. 234).
  10. ^ "Lucy Say Illustrations". Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Diakses tanggal 6 September 2020.