Rusia Bersatu (bahasa Rusia: Единая Россия; Yedinaya Rossiya,IPA: [(j) ɪˈdʲinəjə rɐˈsʲijə]) adalah partai politik yang berkuasa di Rusia. Partai ini didirikan pada tahun 2001. Rusia Bersatu adalah partai terbesar di Rusia dan hingga 2018 partai ini memegang 335 (atau 74,44%) dari 450 kursi di Duma Negara. Anggota Rusia Bersatu telah menjadi mayoritas Duma Negara sejak 2007.

Rusia Bersatu

Единая Россия
KetuaDmitry Medvedev
Sekretaris JenderalAndrey Turchak
Pemimpin ParlementerSergey Neverov
PendiriSergey Shoygu
Yury Luzhkov
Mintimer Shaimiev
Dibentuk1 Desember 2001; 18 tahun lalu (2001-12-01)
Digabungkan dariFatherland – All Russia
Unity
Our Home – Russia
Agrarian Party
Kantor pusat39 Kutuzovsky Avenue
Moscow, Russia 121170[1]
Sayap pemudaYoung Guard of United Russia[2]
Keanggotaan (2013)2,073,772[3]
IdeologiTenda besar[4]
Konservatisme nasional[5][6]
Konservatisme sosial[7]
Konservatisme Rusia[8][9]
Nasionalisme Rusia[10]
Right-wing populism[11]
Putinisme[4][12][13]
Posisi politikRight-wing[14][15][16]
Afiliasi nasionalAll-Russia People's Front
Kursi di Dewan Federasi
128 / 170
[17]
Kursi di Duma Negara
341 / 450
Governors
75 / 85
Kursi di Parlemen Regional
3.091 / 3.980
Menteri
20 / 31
Situs web
er.ru

Partai Rusia Bersatu dibentuk pada Desember 2001 melalui penggabungan partai Persatuan dan Tanah Air - Semua Rusia. Partai Rusia Bersatu, bersama dengan partai Rusia Berkeadilan mendukung kebijakan Presiden Rusia Vladimir Putin, yang juga merupakan pemimpin partai secara de facto.[18] Meskipun popularitas partai Rusia Bersatu menurun dari puncaknya 64,4% dalam pemilihan Duma 2007 menjadi 49,32% pada pemilihan 2011, partai ini tetap menjadi partai yang paling populer di negara itu, mengalahkan Partai Komunis yang berada di urutan kedua dengan suara sebesar 19,19%. Dalam pemilihan umum 2016, partai ini menerima 54,2% suara sementara Partai Komunis yang berada di tempat kedua menerima 13,3%.

Partai ini tidak memiliki ideologi yang koheren, tetapi partai ini merangkul politisi dan pejabat tertentu[19] dengan berbagai pandangan politik yang mendukung pemerintahan.[20] Partai ini menarik terutama untuk pemilih non-ideologis,[21] oleh karena itu Rusia Bersatu sering diklasifikasikan oleh para ilmuwan politik sebagai "tenda besar"[22][23][24] atau sebagai "partai kekuasaan".[25][26] Pada 2009, Partai ini menyatakan konservatisme Rusia sebagai ideologi resminya.[27][28]

Hasil pemilihanSunting

PresidenSunting

Tahun pemilihan Kandidat Ronde 1 Putaran ke-2
Jumlah keseluruhan suara % dari keseluruhan suara Jumlah keseluruhan suara % dari keseluruhan suara
2004 Vladimir Putin 49.565.238 71,3 (menang)
2008 Dmitry Medvedev 52.530.712 71.2 (menang)
2012 Vladimir Putin 46.602.075 63.6 (menang)
2018 Vladimir Putin 56.430.712 76,7 (menang)

Duma NegaraSunting

Tahun Pemimpin partai Performa Status
Voting Persentase Kursi
2003 Boris Gryzlov 22.779.279 37,6%
223 / 450
Pertama Mayoritas

(Pemerintahan)

2007 Vladimir Putin 44.714.241 64,3%
315 / 450
Pertama Supermayoritas

(Pemerintahan)

2011[29] Dmitry Medvedev 32.448.000 49,3%
238 / 450
Pertama Mayoritas

(Pemerintahan)

2016 Dmitry Medvedev 28.271.600 54,2%
343 / 450
Pertama Supermayoritas

(Pemerintahan)

Lihat pulaSunting

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ "Единая Россия официальный сайт Партии / Пресс-служба / Контакты". er.ru. 
  2. ^ "Rechtspopulisten - AfD-Jugend und Putin-Jugend verbünden sich" [Right-wing populists - AfD youth and Putin youth join forces]. Spiegel Online (dalam bahasa Jerman). 23 April 2016. Diakses tanggal 24 December 2017. 
  3. ^ ИНФОРМАЦИЯ о численности членов Всероссийской политической партии "ЕДИНАЯ РОССИЯ" в каждом из ее региональных отделений (по состоянию на 1 января 2011 года) [Information on the number of members of the political party "UNITED RUSSIA" in each of its regional offices (as at 1 January 2011)] (dalam bahasa Rusia). minjust.ru. 1 February 2011. Diarsipkan dari versi asli (DOC) tanggal 25 October 2012. Diakses tanggal 30 March 2015. 
  4. ^ a b Nordsieck, Wolfram (2016). "Russia". Parties and Elections in Europe. Diakses tanggal 20 August 2018. 
  5. ^ Chaisty, Paul; Whitefield, Stephen (20 April 2015). Putin's Nationalism Problem. E-International Relations. .
  6. ^ "Is 'National Conservatism' the New Ideology of the Russian People?". Diena. 5 December 2008. Diakses tanggal 11 January 2018. 
  7. ^ Lansford, Tom. Political Handbook of the World 2015. CQR Press. United Russia ... espouses “social conservatism” 
  8. ^ "The History Of The Party". United Russia. Diakses tanggal 25 December 2017. 
  9. ^ "In the Kremlin told about the right shift of "United Russia"". RBK Group. Diakses tanggal 25 December 2017. 
  10. ^ Laruelle, Marlène (2009). "Nationalism as Conservative Centrism: United Russia". In the Name of the Nation. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. hlm. 119–152. doi:10.1057/9780230101234_5. ISBN 978-1-349-38117-3. 
  11. ^ Henceroth, Nathan (2019). "Open Society Foundations". Dalam Ainsworth, Scott H.; Harward, Brian M. Political Groups, Parties, and Organizations that Shaped America. ABC-CLIO. hlm. 739. 
  12. ^ Sakwa, Richard (2013). Power and Policy in Putin's Russia. Routledge. hlm. 7. ISBN 978-1-317-98994-3. Diakses tanggal 14 October 2017. 
  13. ^ de Vogel, Sasha (25 October 2012). "New Russian "Patriots"". The Institute of Modern Russia. Diakses tanggal 26 May 2017. 
  14. ^ Finn, Peter (26 October 2007). "Kremlin-Backed Opposition Party Foundering as Elections Loom". The Washington Post. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 27 March 2018. Diakses tanggal 27 March 2018. 'As of today, we are truly an opposition party,' Mironov told reporters the day after Putin informed a United Russia congress that he would lead the party at the polls. 'And the president's support consists only of this: He agrees that Russia needs not only the right-wing United Russia but also a powerful socialist or social democratic party. And we don't need any more from him. The rest we'll do ourselves, relying on the support of our voters.' 
  15. ^ Borisov, Sergey (23 November 2009). "United Russia 'determined itself as a right-wing party'". RT. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 29 July 2017. Diakses tanggal 27 March 2018. Having called themselves "conservatives," the members of United Russia "have simply determined their place" as a right-wing party, political scientist Dmitry Travin said. That means that they are "politicians who defend values of the market economy based on national traditions," Rosbalt news agency quoted him as saying. 
  16. ^ Paulo Vicente Alves (2014). Emerging Markets Report (edisi ke-1st). AVEC Editora. ISBN 9788567901053. Diakses tanggal 27 March 2018. Here are the two main parties, the "Right-Wing" United Russia and the "Statist" CPRF (Communist Party). United Russia was created in 2001 from the union of the Unity and Fatherland parties. Their "Right-Wing" position in the frontier of "Leftist" groups shows how hard it is to define United Russia but it is definitely trying to move Russia toward capitalism with stability. 
  17. ^ "Единая Россия официальный сайт Партии / Кто есть кто / Члены Совета Федерации РФ - члены партии "Единая Россия"". er.ru. 
  18. ^ https://www.rline.tv/news/2018-12-07-peskov-putin-lider-edinoy-rossii/
  19. ^ Roberts, S. P. (2012). Putin's United Russia Party. Routledge Series on Russian and East European Studies. Routledge. hlm. 189. ISBN 9781136588334. 
  20. ^ Way, Lucan (2010), "Resistance to Contagion: Sources of Authoritarian Stability in the Former Soviet Union", Democracy and Authoritarianism in the Postcommunist World, Cambridge University Press: 246–247 
  21. ^ Hutcheson, Derek S. (2010). Political marketing techniques in Russia. Global Political Marketing. Routledge. hlm. 225. 
  22. ^ Sakwa, Richard (2011). The Crisis of Russian Democracy: The Dual State, Factionalism and the Medvedev Succession. Cambridge University Press. hlm. 217–218. 
  23. ^ Bodrunova, Svetlana S.; Litvinenko, Anna A. (2013). New media and political protest: The formation of a public counter-sphere in Russia, 2008–12. Russia's Changing Economic and Political Regimes: The Putin years and afterwards. Routledge. hlm. 29–65, at p. 35. 
  24. ^ Rose, Richard (2009). Understanding Post-Communist Transformation: A bottom up approach. Routledge. hlm. 131. 
  25. ^ Compare: Remington, Thomas (2013). Patronage and the Party of Power: President—Parliament Relations under Vladimir Putin. Power and Policy in Putin's Russia. Routledge. hlm. 106. ISBN 9781317989943. Diakses tanggal 22 August 2016. The party of power in Russia has not achieved [..] single-minded mastery of the power and wealth associated with the control of patronage. The party is united only in its support for and dependence on the Kremlin; it is divided when its principal clients take opposing sides. [...] United Russia is not a programmatic party, but a mechanism for extracting rents and distributing patronage. [...] In Russia, the party is the creature of the presidency. [...] [T]he construction of a lasting party of power such as united Russia requires a sustained commitment on the part of the authorities, one which president Putin has been willing to undertake. [...] [T]he concerted effort by President Putin's administration to build up a lasting party of power is a significant development in post-1993 Russian politics [...]. 
  26. ^ Moraski, Bryon J. (2013). The Duma's electoral system: Lessons in endogeneity. Routledge Handbook of Russian Politics and Society. Routledge. hlm. 109. ISBN 9781136641022. Diakses tanggal 22 August 2016. With the March 2000 election of President Vladimir Putin, [...] the suspicion was that [...] institutional changes 'could resurrect a system dominated by a single "party of power"' (McFaul 2000, 30). [...] Still, Russia's electoral system remained largely unchanged for the 2003 Duma election, although the results certainly fuelled speculation that a dominant-party-state had begun to emerge. [...] With the union of Fatherland-All Russia and Unity, Russia's party of power had changed once again, this time emerging as United Russia. The 2003 Duma election provided some evidence that the electoral system was working in the party of power's favour. 
  27. ^ Mezhuev, Boris V. (2013). Democracy in Russia: Problems of Legitimacy. Power and Legitimacy—Challenges from Russia. Routledge. hlm. 115. 
  28. ^ White, Stephen (2011). Understanding Russian Politics. Cambridge University Press. hlm. 362. 
  29. ^ "United Russia to have 238 seats at new State Duma" (6 December 2011). itar-tass.com.

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