Penolak berdasarkan hati nurani

Penolak berdasarkan hati nurani (bahasa Inggris: conscientious objector) adalah "orang yang mengklaim hak untuk menolak melakukan tugas militer"[1] atas dasar kebebasan pemikiran, hati nurani, atau agama.[2]

Di beberapa negara, penolak berdasarkan hati nurani ditugaskan pada tugas sipil alternatif sebagai pengganti tugas militer atau wajib militer. Beberapa penolak berdasarkan hati nurani menganggap diri mereka sendiri sebagai pasifis, non-intervensionis, non-resistan, non-agresionis, anti-imperialis, antimiliteris atau tak bernegara secara filsafat (tak meyakini pengecapan negara).

Pada 8 Maret 1995, resolusi Komisi Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa untuk Hak Asasi Manusia 1995/83 menyatakan bahwa "orang-orang yang memegang tugas militer tak seharusnya dikecualikan dari hak memiliki penolakan berdasarkan hati nurani terhadap tugas militer".[3]

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ On July 30, 2001, explicit clarification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Article 18 was made in the United Nations Human Rights Committee general comment 22, Para. 11: "Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief. Framework for communications. Conscientious Objection". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Diakses tanggal 2012-05-07. 
  2. ^ "International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights". Diakses tanggal 2008-05-15. 
  3. ^ UN Commission on Human Rights (March 8, 1995). "UN Commission on Human Rights, Conscientious objection to military service., 8 March 1995, E/CN.4/RES/1995/83 (See point #2)". UN Commission on Human Rights. Diakses tanggal 2009-12-02. 

Bacaan tambahanSunting

  • Alexander, Paul, (2008),Peace to War: Shifting Allegiances in the Assemblies of God. Telford, PA: Cascadia Publishing/Herald Press. A history and analysis of conscientious objection in the Assemblies of God, the largest Pentecostal denomination.
  • Selective Service, "Conscientious Objection and Alternative Service: Who Qualifies"
  • Bennett, Scott H. (2005). Army GI, Pacifist CO: The World War II Letters of Frank and Albert Dietrich (Fordham Univ. Press).
  • Bennett, Scott H. (2003). Radical Pacifism: The War Resisters League and Gandhian Nonviolence in America, 1915–1963. (Syracuse Univ. Press).
  • Keim, Albert N. (1990). The CPS Story: An Illustrated History of Civilian Public Service, pp. 75–79. Good Books. ISBN 1-56148-002-9
  • Gingerich, Melvin (1949), Service for Peace, A History of Mennonite Civilian Public Service, Mennonite Central Committee.
  • Krahn, Cornelius, Gingerich, Melvin & Harms, Orlando (Eds.) (1955). The Mennonite Encyclopedia, Volume I, pp. 76–78. Mennoniite Publishing House.
  • Matthews, Mark (2006). Smoke Jumping on the Western Fire Line: Conscientious Objectors during World War II, University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0806137667
  • Mock, Melanie Springer (2003). Writing Peace: The Unheard Voices of Great War Mennonite Objectors, Cascadia Publishing House. ISBN 1-931038-09-0
  • Moorehead, Caroline (1987). Troublesome People: Enemies of War, 1916–86, Hamish Hamilton Ltd, ISBN 0-241-12105-1
  • Pannabecker, Samuel Floyd (1975), Open Doors: A History of the General Conference Mennonite Church, Faith and Life Press. ISBN 0-87303-636-0
  • Quakers in Britain — Conscientious Objectors.
  • Smith, C. Henry (1981). Smith's Story of the Mennonites. Revised and expanded by Cornelius Krahn. Newton, Kansas: Faith and Life Press. hlm. 299–300, 311. ISBN 0-87303-069-9. 
  • Spartacus Education Pacifism page.
  • McNair, Donald (2008) A Pacifist at War: Military Memoirs of a Conscientious Objector in Palestine 1917–1918 Anastasia Press, Much Hadham ISBN 978-0-9536396-1-8

Media visualSunting

  • Rick Tejada-Flores, Judith Ehrlich (2000), "The good war and those who refused to fight it"; Paradigm Productions in association with the Independent Television Service, aired on PBS.
  • Catherine Ryan, Gary Weimberg (2008), "Soldiers of Conscience"; Luna Productions. Aired on the PBS nonfiction series POV.

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