Orang yang takut akan Tuhan
Orang yang takut akan Tuhan (bahasa Yunani: φοβούμενος τον Θεόν, Phoboumenos ton Theon) atau penyembah Tuhan (bahasa Yunani: θεοσέβής, Theosebes) adalah sejumlah kelas simpatisan gentil sampai Yudaisme Hellenistik, yang menerapkan ritus dan tradisi keagamaan Yahudi tertentu tanpa sepenuhnya berpindah ke Yudaisme. Konsep tersebut memiliki preseden dalam proselit-proselit dari Alkitab Ibrani.
Catatan dan referensiSunting
- ^ a b Sim, David C. & MacLaren, James S. "Chapter 1, Paragraph 3: God-Fearers". Attitudes to Gentiles in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity. Bloomsbury Publishing. hlm. 15–23. ISBN 978-0-56763-766-6.
- ^ a b Kraabel, A. T. "The Disappearance of the 'God-Fearers'" (PDF). Numen. Brill. 28 (2): 113–126. Diakses tanggal February 5, 2018.
- ^ Marcus, Ralph. "The Sebomenoi in Josephus" (PDF). Jewish Social Studies. Indiana University Press. 14 (3): 247–250. Diakses tanggal February 2, 2018.
We know from Pagan, Christian and Jewish sources that during the Hellenistic and early Roman periods some Gentiles were so strongly attracted to Judaism that they became converts and undertook to observe Jewish laws and customs in the same manner as did the Jews themselves. [...] It is also commonly assumed that there were some Gentiles who did not go so far as to become converts but indicated their belief in monotheism and gave up the worship of Pagan gods. How far they went in openly dissociating themselves from Paganism and in associating themselves with Judaism we do not know. These Gentile sympathizers are commonly thought to be referred by the terms sebomenoi or phoboumenoi ton theon and metuentes in Greek and Latin sources, and yir᾿ê shamayim "fearers of Heaven" (i.e. God-fearers) in some early Rabbinic passages.
“ Proselytes ad God-fearers.-Many scholars see a parallel between the "God-fearers" in rabbinic literature and the "God-fearers" in the NT. In rabbinic literature the ger toshab was a Gentile who observed the Noachian commandments but was not considered a convert to Judaism because he did not agree to circumcision. [...] some scholars have made the mistake of calling the ger toshab a "proselyte" or "semiproselyte." But the ger toshab was really a resident alien in Israel. Some scholars have claimed that the term "those who fear God" (yir᾿ei Elohim/Shamayim) was used in rabbinic literature to denote Gentiles who were on the fringe of the synagogue. They were not converts to Judaism, although they were attracted to the Jewish religion and observed part of the law. ” — Geoffrey W. Bromiley, The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1986, Fully Revised Edition), p. 1010, Vol. 3, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids: Michigan, ISBN 0-8028-3783-2.
- ^ Treblico, Paul, I «Timorati di Dio» in Lewin, Ariel (editor), Gli ebrei nell'Impero romano: saggi vari, pp. 161-193, La Giuntina, Florence, 2001, ISBN 88-8057-120-6.
- ^ Treblico, Paul; Davies, William David & Finkelstein, Louis. "Chapter 3: The Jews in Asia Minor, 66-c. 235 CE". Dalam Katz, Steven T. The Cambridge History of Judaism: Volume 4, The Late Roman-Rabbinic Period. Cambridge University Press. hlm. 80–82. ISBN 978-0-521-77248-8.
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Proselyte mentions "fearers of God"
- Louis H. Feldman, “The Omnipresence of the God-Fearers”, Biblical Archaeology Review 12, 5 (1986), Center for Online Judaic Studies
- A. Chaniotis, "Godfearers in the City of Love", Biblical Archaeology Review 36, 3 (2010), Biblical Archaeology Society
- A. Guttmacher, "Fear of God" (1906), Jewish Encyclopedia