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Operasi Torch (sering disebut Operasi Gymnast) adalah invasi Amerika Serikat dan Britania Raya ke Afrika Utara Prancis selama Perang Dunia II yang dimulai pada tanggal 8 November 1942. Amerika Serikat dan Britania Raya memenangkan pertempuran ini.

Operasi Torch
Bagian dari Perang Dunia II
Near Algiers, "Torch" troops hit the beaches behind a large American flag "Left" hoping for the French Army not fire... - NARA - 195516.jpg
Tentara sekutu mencapai pantai dekat Aljazair.
Tanggal8 November - 10 November 1942
LokasiMoroko, Aljazair
Hasil Kemenangan sekutu
Pihak terlibat
 Amerika Serikat
 Britania Raya
Bendera Prancis Prancis bebas
Bendera Prancis Prancis Vichy
Tokoh dan pemimpin
Bendera Amerika Serikat Dwight Eisenhower
Bendera Britania Raya Andrew Cunningham
Bendera Prancis François Darlan
Kekuatan
73.500 60.000
Korban
479+ tewas
720 terluka
1.346+ tewas
1.997 terluka

Lihat pulaSunting

BibliografiSunting

Laporan perang resmi
  • Les Cahiers Français, La part de la Résistance Française dans les évènements d'Afrique du Nord (Official reports of French Resistance Group leaders who seized Algiers on 8 November 1942, to allow allied landing), Commissariat à l'Information of Free French Comité National, London, Aug. 1943.
Catatan koresponden perang
  • Melvin K. Whiteleather, Main street's new neighbors, J.B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, 1945.
Karya aademik
  • Aboulker, Professeur José; Levisse-Touzé, Christine (2002). "8 novembre 1942: Les armées américaine et anglaise prennent Alger en quinze heures". Espoir (dalam bahasa French). Paris (n° 133). 
  • Allen, Bruce (2007) [1999]. Exit Rommel: The Tunisian Campaign, 1942–43. Stackpole Military History Series. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-3381-6. 
  • Anderson, Charles R. (1993). Algeria-French Morocco 8 November 1942-11 November 1942. WWII Campaigns. Washington: United States Army Center of Military History. ISBN 0-16-038105-3. CMH Pub 72-11. 
  • Breuer, William B. (1985). Operation Torch: The Allied Gamble to Invade North Africa. New York: St.Martins Press. 
  • Brown, J. D. (1968). Carrier Operations in World War II: The Royal Navy. London: Ian Allan. 
  • Danan, Professeur Yves Maxime (1963). La Vie Politique à Alger de 1940 à 1944 (dalam bahasa French). Paris: L.G.D.J. 
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1948). Crusade in Europe. London: William Heinemann. OCLC 559866864. 
  • Edwards, Bernard (1999). Dönitz and the Wolf Packs. Brockhampton Press. ISBN 1-86019-927-5. 
  • Funk, Arthur L. (1974). The Politics of Torch. University Press of Kansas. 
  • Hague, Arnold (2000). The Allied Convoy System 1939–1945. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-019-3. 
  • Howe, George F. (1993) [1957]. North West Africa: Seizing the Initiative in the West. The United States Army in World War II. Washington, D.C.: United States Army Center of Military History. LCCN 57060021. CMH Pub 6-1. 
  • Levisse-Touzé, Christine (1998). L'Afrique du Nord dans la guerre, 1939–1945 (dalam bahasa French). Paris: Albin Michel. 
  • Lewis, Adrian S. (2001). Omaha Beach: a flawed victory. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-2609-X. 
  • Meyer, Leo J. (2000) [1960]. "Chapter 7: The Decision to Invade North Africa (Torch)". Dalam Kent Roberts Greenfield. Command Decisions. United States Army Center of Military History. CMH Pub 70-7. 
  • Michel, Henri (1993). Darlan. Paris: Hachette. 
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot (1947). Operations in North African Waters: Vol. II of History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Boston: Little, Brown and Co. ISBN 0-7858-1303-9. 
  • Moses, Sam (November 2006). At All Costs; How a Crippled Ship and Two American Merchant Mariners Turned the Tide of World War II. Random House. 
  • O'Hara, Vincent P. (2015) Torch: North African and the Allied Path to Victory (Annapolis: Naval Institute, 2015). x, 371 pp.
  • Playfair, Major-General I. S. O.; Molony, Brigadier C. J. C.; Flynn R.N., Captain F. C. & Gleave, Group Captain T. P. (2004) [1st HMSO 1966]. Butler, J. R. M., ed. The Mediterranean and Middle East: The Destruction of the Axis Forces in Africa. History of the Second World War United Kingdom Military Series. IV. Uckfield, UK: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-84574-068-8. 
  • Rohwer, J. & Hummelchen, G. (1992). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-105-X. 
  • Salinas, Alfred (2013) Les Américains en Algérie 1942–1945 (in French), L'Harmattan, Paris
  • Watson, Bruce Allen (2007) [1999]. Exit Rommel: The Tunisian Campaign, 1942–43. Stackpole Military History Series. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-3381-6. OCLC 40595324. 
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