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Kampanye anti-Komunis A.S. tahun 1950-an yang ditujukan pada industri hiburan

McCarthyisme adalah praktik membuat tuduhan subversi atau pengkhianatan tanpa mempertimbangkan bukti. Istilah ini juga berarti "praktik membuat tuduhan tak adil atau menggunakan teknik penyelidikan tak adil untuk mencegah penolakan dan kritik politik."[1] Istilah ini muncul ketika Amerika Serikat mengalami Ancaman Merah Kedua yang berlangsung sejak 1950 sampai 1956 dan dipenuhi tekanan politik terhadap kaum komunis, serta kampanye rasa takut akan pengaruh komunisme terhadap lembaga-lembaga Amerika Serikat dan spionase oleh agen-agen Soviet. Istilah ini awalnya dicetuskan untuk mengkritik upaya anti-komunis Senator A.S. dari Partai Republik Joseph McCarthy dari Wisconsin. "McCarthyisme" pun segera meluas maknanya untuk menyebut upaya sejenis yang dilakukan secara berlebihan. Istilah ini mulai digunakan secara umum untuk menyebut tuduhan sembrono tanpa dasar serta serangan demagogik terhadap karakter atau patriotisme saingan politik.

Pada masa McCarthy, ribuan orang Amerika Serikat dituduh komunis atau simpatisan komunis dan menjadi subjek penyelidikan agresif dan interogasi di hadapan panel, komite, dan lembaga pemerintah atau swasta. Target utama dugaan komunis ini adalah karyawan pemerintah, terutama karyawan industri hiburan, pengajar, dan aktivis serikat pekerja. Tuduhan komunis biasanya dianggap benar meski buktinya tidak lengkap atau dipertanyakan, dan level ancaman dalam keterkaitan atau kepercayaan kiri seseorang (baik asli atau dugaan saja) seringkali dilebih-lebihkan. Banyak orang yang kehilangan pekerjaan dan/atau kariernya hancur; beberapa di antaranya bahkan dipenjara. Sebagian besar hukuman lewat sidang pengadilan ini akhirnya dibatalkan,[2] hukum-hukumnya dinyatakan tidak konstitusional,[3] penolakan atas alasan tak jelas dianggap ilegal[4] atau dapat ditindaklanjuti,[5] atau prosedur luar hukum yang semakin tidak populer.

Contoh terkenal McCarthyism adalah pidato, investigasi, dan sidang dengar pendapat Senator McCarthy itu sendiri; daftar hitam Hollywood yang dikaitkan dengan sidang dengar pendapat oleh House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC); dan berbagai aktivitas anti-komunis Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) di bawah kepemimipinan Direktur J. Edgar Hoover. McCarthyisme merupakan fenomena sosial dan budaya besar yang berdampak pada seluruh ranah masyarakat dan menjadi sumber perdebatan dan konflik utama di Amerika Serikat.

Daftar isi

Korban McCarthyismeSunting

 
Dalton Trumbo bersama istrinya, Cleo, di House Un-American Activities Committee in 1947.

Sejumlah tokoh terkenal yang pernah masuk daftar hitam atau mengalami pengucilan pada masa McCarthyism adalah:

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ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ See this online dictionary for full definition.
  2. ^ For example, Yates v. United States (1957) and Watkins v. United States (1957): Fried (1997), pp. 205, 207.
  3. ^ For example, California's "Levering Oath" law, declared unconstitutional in 1967: Fried (1997), p. 124.
  4. ^ For example, Slochower v. Board of Education (1956): Fried (1997), p. 203.
  5. ^ For example, Faulk vs. AWARE Inc., et al. (1962): Fried (1997), p. 197.
  6. ^ Publication canceled after FBI contact: Horvath, Brooke (2005). Understanding Nelson Algren. University of South Carolina Press. hlm. 84. ISBN 1-57003-574-1. 
  7. ^ On Hollywood "graylist": "Composer Elmer Bernstein Dead at 82". msnbc.com. Associated Press. August 19, 2004. Diakses tanggal 2009-02-27. 
  8. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (2002). The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents. New York, Palgrave. hlm. 244. ISBN 0-312-29425-5. 
  9. ^ Lost his job, exiled: Jessica Wang (1999). American Science in an Age of Anxiety: scientists, anticommunism, & the cold war. The University of North Carolina Press. hlm. 277–278. ISBN 978-0-8078-2447-4. 
  10. ^ "Obituary", New York Times, November 25, 1990. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
  11. ^ "McCarthy Target Ousted". New York Times. November 21, 1952. Diakses tanggal April 4, 2014. 
  12. ^ Buhle, Paul, and David Wagner (2003b). Blacklisted: The Film Lover's Guide to the Hollywood Blacklist. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6145-X. 
  13. ^ Harassed by anti-Communist groups, denied reentry to United States while traveling abroad: Lev, Peter (1999). Transforming the Screen, 1950–1959. University of California Press. hlm. 159. ISBN 0-520-24966-6. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p On the Red Channels blacklist of artists and entertainers: Schrecker (2002), p. 244.
  15. ^ Blacklisted in his profession, committed suicide in 1959: Bosworth, Patricia (1998). Anything Your Little Heart Desires: An American Family Story. Touchstone. ISBN 0-684-83848-6. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f "The Authentic History Center: Red Channels, The Blacklist". Diakses tanggal 21 July 2010. [pranala nonaktif]
  17. ^ On Hollywood blacklist: Buhle and Wagner (2003), p. 105.
  18. ^ Harassed by anti-Communist groups, denied reentry to United States, thus prevented from acting in the movie Broken Lance: Ramón, David (1997). Dolores del Río. Clío. hlm. 44. ISBN 968-6932-35-6. 
  19. ^ Indicted under the Foreign Agents Registration Act: Du Bois, W.E.B. (1968). The Autobiography of W. E. B. Du Bois. International Publishers. ISBN 0-7178-0234-5. 
  20. ^ Craig, R. Bruce (2004). Treasonable Doubt. University Press of Kansas. hlm. 496. ISBN 978-0-7006-1311-3. 
  21. ^ Jerome, Fred (2002). The Einstein File: J. Edgar Hoover's Secret War Against the World's Most Famous Scientist. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-28856-5. 
  22. ^ Herman, Jan (1995). A Talent for Trouble: The Life of Hollywood's Most Acclaimed Director, William Wyler. Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo. ISBN 0-306-80798-X. 
  23. ^ Blacklisted, imprisoned for three months for contempt of Congress: Sabin (1999), p. 75.
  24. ^ Alexander, Stephan (2007). Überwacht. Ausgebürgert. Exiliert: Schriftsteller und der Staat. Bielefeld: Aisthesis Verlag. hlm. 36–52. ISBN 978-3-89528-634-6. 
  25. ^ On Hollywood blacklist: Buhle and Wagner (2003), p. 31.
  26. ^ Berch, Bettina (1988). Radical By Design: The Life and Style of Elizabeth Hawes. Dutton Adult. ISBN 0-525-24715-7. 
  27. ^ "Dorothy Healey Lifelong Communist Fought for Workers", Los Angeles Times, Dennis McLellan, August 08, 2006. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  28. ^ New York Times: "Theodore Kaghan, 77; Was in Foreign Service," August 11, 1989, accessed March 7, 2011
  29. ^ Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Section. "Subject: Danny Kaye". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Diakses tanggal June 29, 2013. 
  30. ^ Keith Haynes "Benjamin Keen 1913–2002" Hispanic American Historical Review 83.2 (2003) 357–359
  31. ^ Heyworth, Peter (1996). Otto Klemperer: Vol.2, 1933-1973: His Life and Times. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521244886. 
  32. ^ Louis Komzsik (2003). The Lanczos Method:Evolution and Application. SIAM. hlm. 79. 
  33. ^ Blacklisted and unemployed, committed suicide in 1955: Fried (1990), p. 156.
  34. ^ a b c Stephan, Alexander (1995). Im Visier des FBI: deutsche Exilschriftsteller in den Akten amerikanischer Geheimdienste. Metzler. ISBN 3-476-01381-2. 
  35. ^ Trotter, William R. (1995). Priest of Music. The Life of Dimitri Mitropoulos. Amadeus Press. ISBN 0-931340-81-0. 
  36. ^ Security clearance withdrawn: Schrecker (2002), p. 41.
  37. ^ Repeatedly denied passport: Thompson, Gail, and R. Andrew Viruleg. "Linus Pauling". Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation. Diakses tanggal 2007-12-11. 
  38. ^ Robert D. Dean, The Imperial Brotherhood: Gender and the Making of Cold War Foreign Policy (University of Massachusetts Press, 2001), 65, 127, 140
  39. ^ "Obituary", New York Times, November 9, 1987. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
  40. ^ On Hollywood blacklist: Buhle and Wagner (2003), p. 18.
  41. ^ Blacklisted, passport revoked: Marable, Manning, John McMillian, and Nishani Frazier (eds.) (2003). Freedom on My Mind: The Columbia Documentary History of the African American Experience. Columbia University Press. hlm. 559. ISBN 0-231-10890-7. 
  42. ^ On Hollywood blacklist: Buhle and Wagner (2003), p. 208.
  43. ^ Brodeur, Paul (1997). A Writer in the Cold War. Faber and Faber. hlm. 159–65. ISBN 978-0-571-19907-5. 
  44. ^ New York Times: Herbert Mitgang, "William L. Shirer, Author, Is Dead at 89,", accessed March 5, 2011
  45. ^ New York Times: Lawrence Van Gelder, "Lionel Stander Dies at 86; Actor Who Defied Blacklist," December 2, 1994, accessed March 5, 2011
  46. ^ http://www.dwc.knaw.nl/DL/levensberichten/PE00003184.pdf, p.7
  47. ^ Subpoenaed by New Hampshire Attorney General, indicted for contempt of court: Heale, M. J. (1998). McCarthy's Americans: Red Scare Politics in State and Nation, 1935–1965. University of Georgia Press. hlm. 73. ISBN 0-8203-2026-9. 
  48. ^ Robert D. Dean, Imperial Brotherhood: Gender and the Making of Cold War Foreign Policy (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001), 141–44
  49. ^ Passport revoked, incarcerated: Chang, Iris (1996). Thread of the Silkworm. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00678-7. 
  50. ^ David H. Price. 2004. Threatening Anthropology: McCarthyism and the FBI's Surveillance of Activist Anthropologists. Duke University Press, March 30, 2004

SumberSunting

  • Block, Herbert (1952). The Herblock Book. Beacon. ISBN 1-4992-5346-X. 
  • Brinkley, Alan (1995). The End Of Reform: New Deal Liberalism in Recession and War. Vintage. ISBN 0-679-75314-1. 
  • Brown, Ralph S. (1958). Loyalty and Security: Employment Tests in the United States. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-306-70218-5. 
  • Buckley, William F. (1977). A Hymnal: The Controversial Arts. G.P. Putnam's Sons. ISBN 0399-12227-3. 
  • Buckley, William F. (1954). McCarthy and His Enemies: The Record and Its Meaning. Regnery. ISBN 0-89526-472-2. 
  • Buhle, Paul, and David Wagner (2003). Hide in Plain Sight: The Hollywood Blacklistees in Film and Television, 1950–2002. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6144-1. 
  • Cox, John Stuart, and Athan G. Theoharis (1988). The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition. Temple University Press. ISBN 0-87722-532-X. 
  • D'Emilio, John (1998). Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities (edisi ke-2d). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-14267-1. 
  • Doherty, Thomas (2005). Cold War, Cool Medium: Television, McCarthyism, and American Culture. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12953-X. 
  • Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509701-7. 
  • Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504361-8. 
  • Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 0-87023-555-9. 
  • Haynes, John Earl, and Harvey Klehr (2000). Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08462-5. 
  • Herman, Herman (2000). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America’s Most Hated Senator. The Free Press. ISBN 0-68483625-4. 
  • McAuliff, Mary Sperling (1978). Crisis on the Left: Cold War Politics and American Liberals, 1947–1954. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 0-87023-241-X. 
  • Rovere, Richard H. (1959). Senator Joe McCarthy. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20472-7. 
  • Sabin, Arthur J. (1999). In Calmer Times: The Supreme Court and Red Monday. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3507-X. 
  • Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-77470-7. 
  • Schrecker, Ellen (2002). The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents (edisi ke-2d). Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-29425-5. 
  • Stone, Geoffrey R. (2004). Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime from the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism. W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-05880-8. 
  • Streitmatter, Rodger (1998). Mightier Than the Sword: How the News Media Have Shaped American History. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3211-7. 
  • Weir, Robert E. (2007). Class in America: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-33720-9. 

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