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Legality of the Threat of Use of Nuclear Weapons

Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons [1996] ICJ 2 adalah sebuah opini nasihat yang dikeluarkan oleh Mahkamah Internasional yang menyatakan bahwa tidak ada sumber hukum, kebiasaan, ataupun perjanjian yang melarang secara eksplisit kepemilikan atau bahkan penggunaan senjata nuklir. Walaupun begitu, penggunaannya masih harus sejalan dengan aturan tentang pertahanan diri (self-defense) dan hukum kemanusiaan internasional.[1]

Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia meminta opini nasihat ini pada 3 September 1993,[2] dan awalnya permintaan ini sempat ditolak karena dianggap berada di luar kapasitas hukum WHO (ultra vires). Maka dari itu, Majelis Umum PBB meminta opini nasihat pada Desember 1994,[3] dan permintaan ini diterima oleh Mahkamah Internasional pada Januari 1995.

Catatan kakiSunting

  1. ^ "Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons - Advisory Opinion of 8 July 1996", International Court of Justice, diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2017-10-18, diakses tanggal 23 October 2017 
  2. ^ "Request for advisory opinion made by the World Health Organization" (PDF). The Hague: International Court of Justice. 1993-09-03. Diarsipkan dari versi asli (PDF) tanggal 2011-06-05. Diakses tanggal 2009-11-02. 
  3. ^ "Request for advisory opinion" (PDF). The Hague: International Court of Justice. 1994-12-19. Diarsipkan dari versi asli (PDF) tanggal 2008-04-10. Diakses tanggal 2009-02-11. 

Bacaan lanjutSunting

  • David, Eric; "The Opinion of the International Court of Justice on the Legality of the Use of Nuclear Weapons" (1997) 316 International Review of the Red Cross 21.
  • Condorelli, Luigi; "Nuclear Weapons: A Weighty Matter for the International Court of Justice" (1997) 316 International Review of the Red Cross 9, 11.
  • Ginger, Ann Fagan; "Looking at the United Nations through The Prism of National Peace Law," 36(2) UN Chronicle62 (Summer 1999).
  • Greenwood, Christopher; "The Advisory Opinion on Nuclear Weapons and the Contribution of the International Court to International Humanitarian Law" (1997) 316 International Review of the Red Cross 65.
  • Greenwood, Christopher; "Jus ad Bellum and Jus in Bello in the Nuclear Weapons Advisory Opinion" in Laurence Boisson de Chazournes and Phillipe Sands (eds), International Law, the International Court of Justice and Nuclear Weapons (1999) 247, 249.
  • Holdstock, Dougaylas; and Waterston, Lis; "Nuclear weapons, a continuing threat to health," 355(9214) The Lancet 1544 (29 April 2000).
  • Jeutner, Valentin; "Irresolvable Norm Conflicts in International Law: The Concept of a Legal Dilemma" (Oxford University Press 2017), ISBN 9780198808374.
  • McNeill, John; "The International Court of Justice Advisory Opinion in the Nuclear Weapons Cases--A First Appraisal" (1997) 316 International Review of the Red Cross 103, 117.
  • Mohr, Manfred; "Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice on the Legality of the Use of Nuclear Weapons Under International Law--A Few Thoughts on its Strengths and Weaknesses" (1997) 316 International Review of the Red Cross 92, 94.
  • Moore, Mike; "World Court says mostly no to nuclear weapons," 52(5) Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 39 (Sept-October 1996).
  • Moxley, Charles J.; Nuclear Weapons and International Law in the Post Cold War World (Austin & Winfield 2000), ISBN 1-57292-152-8.