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Kudeta Iran 1953, yang dikenal di Iran sebagai kudeta 28 Mordad (bahasa Persia: کودتای ۲۸ مرداد), adalah pelengseran Perdana Menteri Mohammad Mosaddegh dalam rangka memperkuat kekuasaan monarki Mohammad Reza Pahlavi pada 19 Agustus 1953, yang disertai oleh Britania Raya (dengan nama "Operasi Boot") dan Amerika Serikat (dengan nama Proyek TPAJAX).[3][4][5][6]

Kudeta Iran 1953
Bagian dari Krisis Abadan
Operationajax.jpg
Pria Tehran merayakan kudeta
Tanggal15–19 Agustus 1953
LokasiIran
Hasil

Perdana Menteri Iran Mohammad Mosaddegh berhasil dilengserkan

Pihak terlibat

Pendukung Mohammed Reza Pahlavi
Covertly:
 Amerika Serikat

 Britania Raya

Pendukung Mohammad Mosaddegh
22x20px Front Nasional
Tokoh dan pemimpin
Bendera Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Bendera Iran Fazlollah Zahedi
Bendera Iran Abol-Ghasem Kashani (1952–1953)
Bendera Amerika Serikat Dwight D. Eisenhower
Bendera Amerika Serikat Allen Dulles
Bendera Amerika Serikat Kermit Roosevelt, Jr.
Bendera Britania Raya Winston Churchill
Bendera Britania Raya Anthony Eden
Bendera Britania Raya John Alexander Sinclair
Bendera Iran Mohammad Mosaddegh
 • Hossein Fatemi
 • Karim Sanjabi
 • Abol-Ghasem Kashani
Korban
300[1]–800[2] tewas

Setelah kudeta tersebut, Shah memerintah sebagai penguasa untuk 26 tahun berikutnya[7][8] ketika memodernisasikan negara tersebut menggunakan pembaharuan minyak, sampai ia dilengserkan dalam Revolusi Iran pada 1979.[7][8][9]

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ Steven R. Ward (2009). Immortal: A Military History of Iran and Its Armed Forces. Georgetown University Press. hlm. 189. ISBN 978-1-58901-587-6. Diakses tanggal 16 July 2013. 
  2. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama systemicpeace
  3. ^ CLANDESTINE SERVICE HISTORY: OVERTHROW OF PREMIER MOSSADEQ OF IRAN, Mar. 1954: p iii.
  4. ^ Ends of British Imperialism: The Scramble for Empire, Suez, and Decolonization. I.B.Tauris. 2007. hlm. 775 of 1082. ISBN 9781845113476. 
  5. ^ Bryne, Malcolm (18 August 2013). "CIA Admits It Was Behind Iran's Coup". Foreign Policy. 
  6. ^ The CIA's history of the 1953 coup in Iran is made up of the following documents: a historian's note, a summary introduction, a lengthy narrative account written by Dr. Donald N. Wilber, and, as appendices, five planning documents he attached. Published 18 June 2000 by The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/library/world/mideast/041600iran-cia-index.html
  7. ^ a b Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Milani Persians
  8. ^ a b Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Milani Shah
  9. ^ Kinzer, Stephen, All the Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror, John Wiley and Sons, 2003.

Daftar pustakaSunting

  • Abrahamian, Ervand, Iran Between Two Revolutions (Princeton University Press, 1982)
  • Dorril, Stephen, Mi6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service ISBN 978-0-7432-0379-1 (paperback is separately titled: MI6: Fifty Years of Special Operations Fourth Estate: London, a division of HarperCollins ISBN 1-85702-701-9)
  • Dreyfuss, Robert, Devil's Game: How the United States Helped Unleash Fundamentalist Islam (Henry Holt and Company: 2005)
  • Elm, Mostafa. Oil, Power and Principle: Iran's Oil Nationalization and Its Aftermath. (Syracuse University Press, 1994) ISBN 978-0-8156-2642-8 Documents competition between Britain and the United States for Iranian oil, both before and after the coup. Publishers Weekly summary: "an impressive work of scholarship by an Iranian economist and former diplomat [showing how] the CIA-orchestrated coup, followed by U.S. backing of the dictatorial Shah, planted"
  • Elwell-Sutton, L. P. Persian Oil: A Study in Power Politics (Lawrence and Wishart Ltd.: London) 1955. Reprinted by Greenwood Press 1976. 978-0837171227
  • Farmanfarmaiyan, Manuchihr, Roxane Farmanfarmaian Blood and Oil: A Prince's Memoir of Iran, from the Shah to the Ayatollah (Random House 2005.). A cousin of Mosaddeq, Farmanfarmaiyan was the Shah's oil adviser. Sympathetic to the Shah and antagonistic to Khomeini, Farmanfarmaiyan offers many insider details of the epic battle for Iranian oil, both in Iran's historic relationship with Britain and then, after the coup, with the United States.
  • Gasiorowski, Mark J. U.S. Foreign Policy and the Shah: Building a Client State in Iran (Cornell University Press: 1991). Traces the exact changes in U.S. foreign policy that led to the coup in Iran soon after the inauguration of Dwight D. Eisenhower; describes "the consequences of the coup for Iran's domestic politics" including "an extensive series of arrests and installation of a rigid authoritarian regime under which all forms of opposition political activity were prohibited." Documents how U.S. oil industry benefited from the coup with, for the first time, 40 percent post-coup share in Iran's oil revenue.
  • Gasiorowski, Mark J., Editor; Malcolm Byrne (Editor) (2004). Mohammad Mosaddeq and the 1953 Coup in Iran. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-3018-0. 
  • Gasiorowski, Mark J. (August 1987). "The 1953 Coup D'etat in Iran". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 10 (3): 261–286. JSTOR 163655. 
  • Gendzier, Irene. Notes From the Minefield: United States Intervention in Lebanon and the Middle East, 1945–1958 Westview Press, 1999. ISBN 978-0-8133-6689-0
  • Heiss, Mary Ann, Empire and Nationhood: The United States, Great Britain, and Iranian Oil, 1950–1954, Columbia University Press,1997. ISBN 0-231-10819-2
  • Kapuscinski, Ryszard (1982). Shah of Shahs. Vintage. ISBN 0-679-73801-0. 
  • Kinzer, Stephen (2003). All the Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-26517-9. 
  • Kinzer, Stephen, Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq (Henry Holt and Company 2006). ISBN /9780805082401 Assesses the influence of John Foster Dulles on U.S. foreign policy. "Dulles was tragically mistaken in his view that the Kremlin lay behind the emergence of nationalism in the developing world. He could... claim consistency in his uncompromising opposition to every nationalist, leftist, or Marxist regime on earth."
  • McCoy, Alfred, A Question of Torture: CIA Interrogation, from the Cold War to the War on Terror (Metropolitan Books 2006)
  • Rashid, Ahmed. Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia (Yale University Press 2010) ISBN 978-0-300-16368-1
  • Roosevelt, Kermit, Jr. (1979). Countercoup: The struggle for the control of Iran. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-053590-9. 
  • Weiner, Tim. Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA (Doubleday 2007) ISBN 978-0-307-38900-8
  • Wilber "Clandestine Service History: Overthrow of Premier Mossadeq of Iran, Nov. 1952 – 1953" [CIA] CS Historial Paper no. 208. March 1954.
  • Behrooz, Maziar (August 2001). "Tudeh Factionalism and the 1953 Coup in Iran". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 33 (3): 363–382. doi:10.1017/S0020743801003026. JSTOR 259456. 

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