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Komunalisme digunakan di Asia Selatan untuk menyebut upaya membangun identitas agama atau etnis, yang menyiratkan perpecahan antar orang yang diidentifikasikan sebagai komunitas berbeda, dan untuk menimbulkan kekerasan komunal antar kelompok tersebut.[1] Hal ini bermula dari sejarah, perbedaan keyakinan, dan ketegangan antar komunitas.[2]

Istilah komunalisme dipakai oleh otoritas kolonial Inggris saat mereka memerangi kekerasan antar agama, etnis dan kelompok berbeda di koloni-koloninya, terutama Afrika dan Asia Selatan, pada awal abad ke-20.[3][4][5]

Komunalisme bukanlah hal yang unik di Asia Selatan. Hal tersebut ditemukan di Afrika,[6][7] Amerika,[8][9] Asia,[10][11] Eropa[12] dan Australia.[13]

Komunalisme adalah sebuah masalah sosial menonjol di Bangladesh, India, Pakistan dan Sri Lanka.[2]

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ Donald Horowitz (1985), Ethnic Groups in Conflict, ISBN 978-0520053854
  2. ^ a b Pandey, Gyanendra (2006). The Construction of Communalism in Colonial North India. Oxford India. 
  3. ^ Gerry van Klinken, Communal Violence and Democratization in Indonesia - Small Town Wars, ISBN 978-0-415-41713-6, Routledge
  4. ^ Arafaat A. Valiani, Militant Publics in India: Physical Culture and Violence in the Making of a Modern Polity, ISBN 978-0230112575, Palgrave Macmillan, pp 29-32
  5. ^ David Killingray, Colonial Warfare in West Africa, in Imperialism and War: Essays on Colonial Wars in Asia and Africa (Edited by Jaap A. de Moor, H. L. Wesseling), ISBN 978-9004088344, Brill Academic
  6. ^ Kynoch, G. (2013). Reassessing transition violence: Voices from South Africa's township wars, 1990–4. African Affairs, 112(447), 283-303
  7. ^ John F. McCauley, Economic Development Strategies and Communal Violence in Africa, Comparative Political Studies February 2013 vol. 46 no. 2 182-211
  8. ^ Willis, G. D. (2014), Antagonistic authorities and the civil police in Sao Paulo Brazil, Latin American Research Review, 49(1), 3-22
  9. ^ Resource guide for municipalities UNODC
  10. ^ Mancini, L. (2005) Horizontal Inequality and Communal Violence: Evidence from Indonesian Districts (CRISE Working Paper No. 22, Oxford, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford)
  11. ^ Werbner, P. (2010), Religious identity, The Sage handbook of identities, ISBN 978-1412934114, Chapter 12
  12. ^ Todorova, T. (2013), ‘Giving Memory a Future’: Confronting the Legacy of Mass Rape in Post-conflict Bosnia-Herzegovina, Journal of International Women's Studies, 12(2), 3-15
  13. ^ Bell, P., & Congram, M. (2013), Communication Interception Technology (CIT) and Its Use in the Fight against Transnational Organised Crime (TOC) in Australia: A Review of the Literature, International Journal of Social Science Research, 2(1), 46-66

Bacaan tambahanSunting

  • Chandra, Bipan (1984). Communalism in Modern India. New Delhi: Vikas. ISBN 0706926552. 
  • Praful Bidwai; Harbans Mukhia; Achin Vanaik (ed.). Religion, Religiosity and Communalism. New Delhi: Manohar. ISBN 8173041326. 
    • Jhingran, Saral. "Religion and communalism"
  • Asgharali Engineer. Lifting the veil: communal violence and communal harmony in contemporary India. Sangam Books, 1995. ISBN 81-7370-040-0.
  • Ludden, David, editor. Contesting the Nation: Religion, Community, and the Politics of Democracy in India, Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1996.
    • Manuel, Peter. "Music, the Media, and Communal Relations in North India, Past and Present," pp. 119–39.
  • Martin E. Marty, R. S. Appleby (eds.), Fundamentalisms Observed The Fundamentalism Project vol. 4, eds., University Of Chicago Press (1994), ISBN 978-0-226-50878-8
    • Mumtaz Ahmad,an 'Islamic Fundamentalism in South Asia: The Jamaat-i-Islami and the Tablighi Jamaat', pp. 457–530.
    • Gold, Daniel, 'Organized Hinduisms: From Vedic Truths to Hindu Nation', pp. 531–593.
    • T. N. Madan, 'The Double-Edged Sword: Fundamentalism and the Sikh Religious Tradition', pp. 594–627.
  • A History of the Hindu-Muslim Problem in India from the Earliest Contacts Up to its Present Phase With Suggestions for Its Solution. Allahabad, 1933. Congress report on the 1931 Cawnpur Riots.
  • Nandini Gooptu, The Urban Poor and Militant Hinduism in Early Twentieth-Century Uttar Pradesh, Modern Asian Studies, Cambridge University Press (1997).

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