Kezaliran seksual adalah satu atau lebih perubahan dalam seksualitas atau identitas seksual (kadang-kadang dikenal sebagai identitas orientasi seksual). Konsensus ilmiah menunjukkan bahwa orientasi seksual bukanlah sebuah pilihan.[1][2][3] Orientasi seksual bersifat stabil dan tidak mungkin berubah untuk sebagian besar orang, tetapi beberapa penelitian menunjukkan bahwa beberapa orang mungkin mengalami perubahan dalam orientasi seksual mereka, dan ini lebih mungkin terjadi pada wanita daripada pria.[4] Tidak ada bukti ilmiah bahwa orientasi seksual dapat diubah melalui psikoterapi.[5][6] Identitas seksual dapat berubah sepanjang hidup seseorang, dan mungkin atau mungkin tidak sejalan dengan seks biologis, perilaku seksual, atau orientasi seksual aktual.[7][8][9] Tidak ada konsensus tentang penyebab pasti dari berkembangnya suatu orientasi seksual, tetapi faktor genetik, hormonal, pengaruh sosial dan budaya telah ditelaah.[3][10][11] Para ilmuwan percaya bahwa hal tersebut disebabkan oleh interaksi yang kompleks antara faktor genetik, hormonal, dan pengaruh lingkungan.[1][3][11]

Hasil dari studi longitudinal berskala besar oleh Savin-Williams, Joyner, dan Rieger tahun 2012 menunjukkan bahwa stabilitas identitas orientasi seksual selama periode enam tahun lebih lazim daripada perubahan, dan bahwa stabilitas paling besar terdapat di kalangan para pria dan mereka mengidentifikasi dirinya sebagai heteroseksual.[12]

Penggunaan istilah "kezaliran seksual" telah dikaitkan dengan Lisa M. Diamond, terutama yang berkaitan dengan seksualitas perempuan.[13][14]

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Seringkali, orientasi seksual dan identitas seksual tidak dibedakan, yang dapat berdampak terhadap penilaian identitas seksual secara akurat dan apakah orientasi seksual dapat berubah atau tidak; identitas orientasi seksual dapat berubah sepanjang hidup seseorang, dan mungkin atau mungkin tidak sejalan dengan seks biologis, perilaku seksual, atau orientasi seksual yang sebenarnya.[7][8][9] Meskipun Pusat Kecanduan dan Kesehatan Mental dan Asosiasi Psikogenik Amerika menyatakan bahwa orientasi seksual adalah bersifat bawaan, berkelanjutan atau tetap sepanjang hidup mereka untuk segelintir orang, tetapi bersifat zalir atau berubah dari waktu ke waktu untuk yang lainnya,[15][16] Asosiasi Psikologi Amerika membedakan antara orientasi seksual (daya tarik bawaan) dan identitas orientasi seksual (yang dapat berubah kapan saja dalam kehidupan seseorang).[17] Para ilmuwan dan profesional kesehatan mental umumnya tidak percaya bahwa orientasi seksual adalah pilihan.[1][2]

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ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ a b c Frankowski B.L.; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Adolescence (June 2004). "Sexual orientation and adolescents". Pediatrics. 113 (6): 1827–32. doi:10.1542/peds.113.6.1827. PMID 15173519. The mechanisms for the development of a particular sexual orientation remain unclear, but the current literature and most scholars in the field state that one’s sexual orientation is not a choice; that is, individuals do not choose to be homosexual or heterosexual. A variety of theories about the influences on sexual orientation have been proposed. Sexual orientation probably is not determined by any one factor but by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences. 
  2. ^ a b Gloria Kersey-Matusiak (2012). Delivering Culturally Competent Nursing Care. Springer Publishing Company. hlm. 169. ISBN 0826193811. Diakses tanggal February 10, 2016. Most health and mental health organizations do not view sexual orientation as a 'choice.' 
  3. ^ a b c Mary Ann Lamanna, Agnes Riedmann, Susan D Stewart (2014). Marriages, Families, and Relationships: Making Choices in a Diverse Society. Cengage Learning. hlm. 82. ISBN 1305176898. Diakses tanggal February 11, 2016. The reason some individuals develop a gay sexual identity has not been definitively established  – nor do we yet understand the development of heterosexuality. The American Psychological Association (APA) takes the position that a variety of factors impact a person's sexuality. The most recent literature from the APA says that sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors...is shaped at an early age...[and evidence suggests] biological, including genetic or inborn hormonal factors, play a significant role in a person's sexuality (American Psychological Association 2010). 
  4. ^
    • Bailey, J. Michael; Vasey, Paul; Diamond, Lisa; Breedlove, S. Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc (2016). "Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science". Psychological Science in the Public Interest. 17 (2): 45–101. doi:10.1177/1529100616637616. Sexual fluidity is situation-dependent flexibility in a person’s sexual responsiveness, which makes it possible for some individuals to experience desires for either men or women under certain circumstances regardless of their overall sexual orientation....We expect that in all cultures the vast majority of individuals are sexually predisposed exclusively to the other sex (i.e., heterosexual) and that only a minority of individuals are sexually predisposed (whether exclusively or non-exclusively) to the same sex. 
    • Seth J. Schwartz, Koen Luyckx, Vivian L. Vignoles (2011). Handbook of Identity Theory and Research. Springer Science & Business Media. hlm. 652. ISBN 1441979883. Diakses tanggal February 18, 2016. Modern scholarship examining the stability of sexual orientation also seems to support our conceptualizations of sexual orientation, sexual orientation identity, and sexual identity (e.g., Diamond, 2003a; Horowitz & Necomb, 2001; Rosario, Schrimshaw, Hunter, & Braun, 2006, see Savin-Williams, Chapter 28, this volume). Specifically, some dimensions of sexual identity, such as relationships, emotions, behaviors, values, group affiliation, and norms, appear to be relatively fluid; by contrast, sexual orientation [i.e., an individual's patterns of sexual, romantic, and affectional arousal and desire for other persons based on those persons' gender and sex characteristics (APA Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual orientation, 2009)] has been suggested to be stable for a majority of people across the lifespan (Bell, Weinberg, & Hammersmith, 1981; Ellis & Ames, 1987; Haldeman, 1991; Money, 1987). 
    • Dennis Coon, John O. Mitterer (2012). Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior with Concept Maps and Reviews. Cengage Learning. hlm. 372. ISBN 111183363X. Diakses tanggal February 18, 2016. Sexual orientation is a deep part of personal identity and is usually quite stable. Starting with their earliest erotic feelings, most people remember being attracted to either the opposite sex or the same sex. [...] The fact that sexual orientation is usually quite stable doesn't rule out the possibility that for some people sexual behavior may change during the course of a lifetime. 
    • American Psychological Association (2012). "Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients" (PDF). American Psychologist. 67 (1): 10–42. doi:10.1037/a0024659. PMID 21875169. Diakses tanggal June 23, 2019. [S]ome research indicates that sexual orientation is fluid for some people; this may be especially true for women (e.g., Diamond, 2007; Golden, 1987; Peplau & Garnets, 2000). [...] Therapeutic efforts to change sexual orientation have increased and become more visible in recent years (Beckstead & Morrow, 2004). Therapeutic interventions intended to change, modify, or manage unwanted nonheterosexual orientations are referred to as “sexual orientation change efforts” (SOCE; APA, 2009b). [...] Reviews of the literature, spanning several decades, have consistently found that efforts to change sexual orientation were ineffective (APA, 2009b; Drescher, 2001; Haldeman, 1994; T. F. Murphy, 1992). 
    • Eric Anderson, Mark McCormack (2016). "Measuring and Surveying Bisexuality". The Changing Dynamics of Bisexual Men's Lives. Springer Science & Business Media. hlm. 47. ISBN 978-3-319-29412-4. Diakses tanggal June 22, 2019. [R]esearch suggests that women's sexual orientation is slightly more likely to change than men's (Baumeister 2000; Kinnish et al. 2005). The notion that sexual orientation can change over time is known as sexual fluidity. Even if sexual fluidity exists for some women, it does not mean that the majority of women will change sexual orientations as they age – rather, sexuality is stable over time for the majority of people. 
  5. ^ American Psychological Association (2012). "Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients" (PDF). American Psychologist. 67 (1): 10–42. doi:10.1037/a0024659. PMID 21875169. Diakses tanggal June 23, 2019. Therapeutic efforts to change sexual orientation have increased and become more visible in recent years (Beckstead & Morrow, 2004). Therapeutic interventions intended to change, modify, or manage unwanted nonheterosexual orientations are referred to as “sexual orientation change efforts” (SOCE; APA, 2009b). [...] Reviews of the literature, spanning several decades, have consistently found that efforts to change sexual orientation were ineffective (APA, 2009b; Drescher, 2001; Haldeman, 1994; T. F. Murphy, 1992). 
  6. ^ "Royal College of Psychiatrists' Position Statement on Sexual Orientation" (PDF). Royal College of Psychiatrists. Diakses tanggal June 21, 2019. The College believes strongly in evidence-based treatment. There is no sound scientific evidence that sexual orientation can be changed. Systematic reviews carried out by both the APA and Serovich et al suggest that studies which have shown conversion therapies to be successful are seriously methodologically flawed. 
  7. ^ a b Sinclair, Karen, About Whoever: The Social Imprint on Identity and Orientation, NY, 2013 ISBN 9780981450513
  8. ^ a b Rosario, M.; Schrimshaw, E.; Hunter, J.; Braun, L. (2006). "Sexual identity development among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: Consistency and change over time". Journal of Sex Research. 43 (1): 46–58. doi:10.1080/00224490609552298. PMC 3215279 . 
  9. ^ a b Ross, Michael W.; Essien, E. James; Williams, Mark L.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia. (2003). "Concordance Between Sexual Behavior and Sexual Identity in Street Outreach Samples of Four Racial/Ethnic Groups". Sexually Transmitted Diseases. American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association. 30 (2): 110–113. doi:10.1097/00007435-200302000-00003. PMID 12567166. 
  10. ^ "Answers to Your Questions For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality". American Psychological Association. Diakses tanggal February 9, 2016. 
  11. ^ a b Gail Wiscarz Stuart (2014). Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing. Elsevier Health Sciences. hlm. 502. ISBN 032329412X. Diakses tanggal February 11, 2016. No conclusive evidence supports any one specific cause of homosexuality; however, most researchers agree that biological and social factors influence the development of sexual orientation. 
  12. ^ Savin-Williams, R.C.; Joyner, K.; Rieger, G. (2012). "Prevalence and stability of self-reported sexual orientation identity during young adulthood". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 41: 1–8. doi:10.1007/s10508-012-9913-y. PMID 22302504. 
  13. ^ Wayne Weiten, Dana S. Dunn, Elizabeth Yost Hammer (2016). Psychology Applied to Modern Life: Adjustment in the 21st Century. Cengage Learning. hlm. 341. ISBN 1337517070. Diakses tanggal April 4, 2017. 
  14. ^ Robert L. Crooks, Karla Baur (2016). Our Sexuality. Cengage Learning. hlm. 298. ISBN 1305887425. Diakses tanggal April 4, 2017. 
  15. ^ "Question A2: Sexual orientation". Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 28 December 2014. Diakses tanggal 3 February 2015. 
  16. ^ "LGBT-Sexual Orientation: What is Sexual Orientation?" Diarsipkan 2014-06-28 di Wayback Machine., the official web pages of APA. Accessed April 9, 2015
  17. ^ "Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation" (PDF). American Psychological Association. 2009: 63, 86. Diakses tanggal February 3, 2015.