Kerang goreng adalah kerang yang dicelupkan ke dalam susu lalu dibalut tepung kemudian digoreng terendam dalam minyak panas.

Kerang goreng
Kerang goreng buatan Woodman's of Essex di Essex, Massachusetts
Kerang goreng buatan Woodman's of Essex di Essex, Massachusetts.
Tempat asalBendera Amerika Serikat Amerika Serikat
DaerahNew England
Massachusetts
Dibuat olehLawrence "Chubby" Woodman
Bahan utamaKerang Ipswich

Kerang goreng adalah makanan yang ikonik, "ke New England, artinya barbekyu ke arah Selatan". Makanan ini cenderung disajikan di kedai kerang tepi laut (restoran pinggir jalan).[1] Roti gulung kerang goreng (bahasa Inggris: clam rolls) adalah kerang goreng yang disajikan dalam roti hot dog.[2][3] Saus tartar adalah bumbu yang sering digunakan.[2][4]

PenyajianSunting

 
Roti gulung kerang goreng atau Clam rolls

Kerang dicelupkan ke dalam susu evaporasi, lalu dibalut dengan kombinasi tepung biasa, tepung maizena, dan/atau tepung terigu.[1][5] Kemudian kerang yang sudah dibalut tepung tersebut digoreng terendam dalam minyak kanola, minyak kedelai, atau lemak babi.[1][5]

Varian yang umum di New England adalah menggunakan kerang cangkang lunak, yang dikenal dengan nama "Whole-Bellies"; ini termasuk isi perut kerang dan memiliki rasa yang lebih kaya.[1][6] Beberapa restoran membuang bagian kenyal kerang yang disebut siphon.

Di luar New England, "clam strips" (strip kerang), dibuat dari kerang Atlantik, juga umum digunakan.[7]

SejarahSunting

Kerang goreng telah disebutkan di awal tahun 1840, dan dimasukkan dalam menu tahun 1865 di hotel Parker House.[8] Bagaimana tepatnya mereka disajikan tidak begitu jelas; menu tahun 1865 itu menawarkan "tiram-goreng" dan "tiram-goreng dalam adonan", tetapi hanya "kerang goreng" yang lebih familiar.[9]

Buku masak Amerika abad ke-19 mendeskripsikan beberapa perbedaan dalam hidangan kerang goreng:

  • Kerang musiman ditumis menggunakan mentega. (1850)[10]
  • Kerang dipanir (dibalut dengan telur terlebih dahulu) lalu ditumis dengan mentega atau lemak. (1850)[10] (1904)[11]
  • Kerang dibalut dengan campuran telur dan tepung, lalu digoreng dengan mentega, disebut kerang goreng bungkus ("clam fritters"). (1850)[10] (1904)[11]

Gaya modern menggoreng hingga tenggelam dalam minyak, versi yang dibalut tepung roti dikreditkan kepada Lawrence Henry "Chubby" Woodman dari Essex, Massachusetts. Ia disebutkan telah membuat gelombang pertama pada 3 Juli 1916,[12] di restoran kecil pinggir jalan miliknya, sekarang Woodman's of Essex. Salah satu spesialisasinya adalah keripik kentang, jadi ia punya panci besar untuk menggoreng. Ia menggunakan kerang, yang telah ia ambil sendiri dari tanah berlumpur di Sungai Essex yang terletak di dekat rumahnya.[13]

Kemudian, Thomas Soffron, pemilik Soffron Brothers Clam Co., yang berbasis di Ipswich, Massachusetts, menciptakan strip kerang, yang terbuat dari "kaki" kerang laut bercangkang keras. Ia menjual ini ke Howard Johnson's dalam kesepakatan eksklusif, dan ketika rantai diperluas, mereka menjadi populer di seluruh negeri.[14][15]

Pertimbangan kesehatan dan dietSunting

Kerang merupakan makanan rendah kolesterol dan rendah lemak, tetapi kerang goreng menyerap lemak ketika dimasak.[16]

Lihat pulaSunting

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ a b c d Leite, David (2007-08-29). "In a '64 T-Bird, Chasing a Date With a Clam". New York Times. Diakses tanggal 2007-08-21 (dalam bahasa Inggris). Fried clams are to New England what barbecue is to the South. Like barbecue, the best clams come from small roadside shacks run in pragmatic mom-and-pop style. 
  2. ^ a b "Sandwich Pride". U.S. Department of State. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2007-12-21 (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diakses tanggal 2007-12-19. For the fried clam roll, sweet, full-bellied clams are dipped in batter and thrown into the deep fryer. A few minutes later they're laid into a top-loaded hot dog bun with some tartar sauce and a slice of lemon on the side. 
  3. ^ "An Ode to the Clam". National Public Radio. During the consumption of that clam roll and the one that followed it ... Daniel Pinkwater longs for a great clam roll from his home in New ... 
  4. ^ "Battered and Fried". Battered and Fried. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2007-12-07. Diakses tanggal 2007-12-19. Fried Clam Strip Basket. Lightly Breaded Clam strips Deep Fried & served with Tartar Sauce. 
  5. ^ a b Parrish, Marlene (21 Oktober 2007). "A mission to find glorious fried clams". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Diakses tanggal 2007-12-19 (dalam bahasa Inggris). The clams are dug, shelled every morning and the siphons (or "necks") are cut off. (That's the part that can sometimes be as chewy as a rubber band.) Then they are soaked in evaporated milk, dredged in just a bit of corn and white flours and fried in lard. 
  6. ^ Moskin, Julia (2005-06-13). "Dark Days for the Fried Clam, a Summer Staple". New York Times. Diakses tanggal 2007-12-19 (dalam bahasa Inggris). In the raw, a clam consists of a longish muscular foot used for digging; inside the shell is a mass of siphons, stomach and gills, referred to as the belly, which is surrounded by a band of muscle, known as the neck. The best fried clams include both belly and neck, and can be popped into the mouth in one bite. 
  7. ^ "The great clam debate". Cape Cod Times. Diakses tanggal 2007-12-19 (dalam bahasa Inggris). Fried clams with bellies or without? The age-old question of how to eat these deep-fried bits of summertime goodness may never be answered, but as local clam connoisseurs will tell you, those with guts enough to eat them whole get the benefit of the full flavor. The line between those who do and those who don't seems clearly drawn in geographical terms. Real Cape Codders either eat the bellies or are too ashamed to admit they don't. Clam strips, made popular by the ... 
  8. ^ William E. Burton, "Thaumaturgia", in William E. Burton and Edgar A. Poe, eds., Burton's Gentleman's Magazine, and Monthly American Review, January 1840, p. 70
  9. ^ see the Parker House menu from 1865 with fried clams and oysters to the right
  10. ^ a b c Hannah Mary Bouvier Peterson, Martha Read, The National Cookbook, 1856 (preface dated 1850), p. 33
  11. ^ a b Charles Fellows, The Culinary Handbook, Chicago, 1904, p. 58
  12. ^ Jenkins, Nancy (August 21, 2002). "The Deep-Fried Truth About Ipswich Clams". The New York Times. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 17 April 2009 (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diakses tanggal 2009-03-24. 
  13. ^ Roberts, Steven V. (1983-06-05). "Fare of the Country; Yankee Staple: Clam Fry". New York Times. Diakses tanggal 2007-09-21. According to Doug Woodman, Chubby's grandson, someone suggested that frying clams might be a good idea. 
  14. ^ "Thomas Soffron, 96, Creator of Clam Strips". New York Times. 2004-02-28. Diakses tanggal 2007-10-23. Thomas Soffron, a clam digger and entrepreneur who created clam strips, which brought low-priced fried clams to restaurants nationwide, died here last Saturday, The Boston Globe reported. He was 96. 
  15. ^ Sovich, Nina (2004-05-01). "Clam King". CNN. Diakses tanggal 2007-12-15 (dalam bahasa Inggris). Like many famous Greeks, and not a few New Englanders, Thomas Soffron found his fortune at sea. An immigrant from Calamata, Greece, Soffron invented clam strips: battered and fried slices from the "foot" of hard-shelled sea clams (which held up better when frozen than did the coastal variety). For years Soffron Brothers Clam Co., based in Ipswich, Massachusetts, served as the exclusive supplier of clam strips to the Howard Johnson's restaurant chain, which sold the whole country on this Down East delicacy. Few HoJo's are left, but the clam strip's enduring popularity stands as its creator's legacy. Soffron died on February 21 at age 96 in Ipswich, his hometown. 
  16. ^ Roberts, Steven V. "Shellfish and Fat and Cholesterol". Dr. Gourmet Website. hlm. 1. Diakses tanggal 2009-05-27. Fried clams are a problem, not because of the clams but because of the cooking method.