Kebudayaan Sintashta

kebudayaan arkeologi

Kebudayaan Sintashta (bahasa Rusia: Синташтинская культура, translit. Sintashtinskaya kul'tura) yang pernah berlangsung sekitar tahun 2050–1900 SM, adalah tahap pertama dari Kebudayaan Sintashta–Petrovka[1] atau Kebudayaan Sintashta–Arkaim,[2] dan merupakan suatu kebudayaan arkeologis yang pernah ada pada Zaman Perunggu Pertengahan Akhir[3] terletak di Pegunungan Ural Selatan, di Stepa Eurasia. Seluruh Kawasan Sintashta–Petrovka diteliti tahap dan penanggalan dalam karya penelitian terbaru oleh Stephan Lindner, berdasarkan serangkaian 19 sampel penanggalan radiokarbon yang diperkirakan pada tahun 2050–1750 SM.[4][5] Tahap kebudayaan Petrovka diperkirakan pernah berlangsung pada tahun 1900–1750 SM.[6][7] Analisis tertua yang dapat diandalkan dari sisa-sisa tulang-belulang manusia dari Sintashta adalah radiokarbon dengan tanggal rata-rata 2198±66 SM (2335–2041 calBC), dan dianalisis secara genetika sebagai Y-haplogroup R1a-Z93 < R-Z2124.[8]

Kebudayaan Sintashta
Sintashta culture.jpg
PeriodeZaman Perunggu pertengahan akhir
Tanggal2050–1900 SM
Jenis situsSintashta
Situs indukSintashta
Arkaim
Petrovka
CiriPengolahan tembaga dan perunggu yang luas
Pemukiman berbenteng
Penguburan senjata yang rumit
Kereta perang paling awal yang diketahui
Didahului olehKebudayaan Barang Kawat
Kebudayaan Poltavka
Kebudayaan Abashevo
Diikuti olehKebudayaan Andronovo

Kebudayaan Sintashta sebelumnya diperkirakan berlangsung pada tahun 2200–1800 SM.[9][10][11] Pada penelitian tahun 2020, Ventresca Miller dkk. masih mengklaim periode tersebut berlangsung tahun 2400–1800 SM,[12][13] berdasarkan 44 penanggalan kalibrasi C14 sebelumnya oleh Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Rusia, yang oleh beberapa peneliti lain dianggap sudah ketinggalan zaman. Kebudayaan ini dinamai dari situs kepurbakalaan Sintashta, di Oblast Chelyabinsk, Rusia, dan menyebar melalui Oblast Orenburg, Bashkortostan, dan Kazakhstan Utara.

Kebudayaan ini dianggap mewakili migrasi ke timur masyarakat dari Kebudayaan Barang Kawat. Kebudayaan Sintashta secara luas dianggap sebagai asal mula Indo-Iran.[14][15] Kereta perang paling awal yang diketahui telah ditemukan di pemakaman Sintashta, dan kebudayaan ini dianggap sebagai kandidat kuat untuk asal-usul teknologi kereta perang yang menyebar ke seluruh dunia dan memainkan peran penting dalam peperangan kuno.[16][17] Pemukiman Sintashta juga dikenal karena banyaknya penambangan tembaga dan pengolahan perunggu yang dilakukan di sana, yang tidak biasa untuk kebudayaan stepa lainnya.[18] Di antara ciri-ciri utama budaya Sintashta adalah militerisme tingkat tinggi dan permukiman berbenteng yang luas, 23 di antaranya diketahui.[19]

ReferensiSunting

Catatan kakiSunting

  1. ^ Koryakova 1998b.
  2. ^ Koryakova 1998a.
  3. ^ Lindner, Stephan, (2020). "Chariots in the Eurasian Steppe: a Bayesian approach to the emergence of horse-drawn transport in the early second millennium BC", in Antiquity, Vol 94, Issue 374, April 2020, p. 362: "...The publication of new radiocarbon data series from selected burial sites in the South-eastern Urals has helped to establish a much more accurate chronology for the late Middle Bronze Age Sintashta-Petrovka complex (Hanks et al. 2007: 362, fig. 3)..."
  4. ^ Lindner, Stephan, (2020). "Chariots in the Eurasian Steppe: a Bayesian approach to the emergence of horse-drawn transport in the early second millennium BC", in Antiquity, Vol 94, Issue 374, April 2020, p. 367: "...The 12 calibrated radiocarbon dates belonging to the Sintashta horizon range between 2050 and 1760 cal BC (at 95.4% confidence; Epimakhov & Krause 2013: 137). These dates correlate well with the seven AMS-sampled Sintashta graves in the associated KA-5cemetery, which date to 2040–1730 cal BC (95.4% confidence...)".
  5. ^ Chechushkov, Igor, (2018). Bronze Age Human Communities in the Southern Urals Steppe: Sintashta Petrovka Social and Subsistence Organization, Dissertation for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Kenneth P. Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences, University of Pittsburg, p. iv: "...the Late Bronze Age Sintashta-Petrovka chiefdoms of the southern Urals (cal. 2050–1750 BC)..."
  6. ^ Grigoriev, Stanislav, (2021). "Andronovo Problem: Studies of Cultural Genesis in the Eurasian Bronze Age", in Open Archaeology 2021 (7), p.27: Five AMS dates for Petrovka culture are "within the range 1880-1750 BC...", these are dates of two sites, Ustye and Kulevchi (Molodin et al., 2014, p.142), "which are located on the territory of Sintashta culture..."
  7. ^ Lindner, Stephan, (2020). "Chariots in the Eurasian Steppe: a Bayesian approach to the emergence of horse-drawn transport in the early second millennium BC", in Antiquity, Vol 94, Issue 374, April 2020, p. 364: "...Indeed, a new radiocarbon series has confirmed the position of the Petrovka stage in the nineteenth to eighteenth centuries BC (Krause et al. 2019). Recent research at the enclosed settlement of Kamennyj Ambar in the Karagajly Ajat River valley (Chelyabinsk Oblast) supports this stratigraphic evidence, based on the existence of different occupation phases...."
  8. ^ Allentoft, ME (11 Juni 2015). "Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia". Nature. Nature Research. 522 (7555): 167–172. doi:10.1038/nature14507. PMID 26062507. S2CID 4399103
  9. ^ Chernykh, E. N. (2008). "Formation of the Eurasian 'Steppe Belt' of Stockbreeding Cultures: Viewed through the Prism of Archaeometallurgy and Radiocarbon Dating", in Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia 35/3 (2008), Elsevier: "...radiocarbon estimates...accumulated and systematized at the Laboratory of the Institute of Archaeology, Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow)...Sintashta, 44 dates; Abashevo, 22; and Petrovka, only nine...the ranges of sum probabilities within the 68% limits: they strikingly coincide, falling between the 22nd and the 18th/17th cent. BC..." (pp. 38 and 48).
  10. ^ Chernykh, E. N., (2009). Formation of the Eurasian Steppe Belt Cultures: Viewed Through the Lens of Archaeometallurgy and Radiocarbon Dating, in B. Hanks & K. Linduff (eds.), Social Complexity in Prehistoric Eurasia: Monuments, Metals and Mobility, Cambridge University Press, pp. 128–133.
  11. ^ Parpola, Asko, (2017). "Finnish vatsa – Sanskrit vatshá – and the formation of Indo–Iranian and Uralic languages", in SUSA/JSFOu 96, 2017, p. 249.
  12. ^ Ventresca Miller, Alicia R., et al., (2020 b). "Ecosystems Engineering Among Ancient Pastoralists in Northern Central Asia", in Frontiers in Earth Science, Volume 8, Article 168, 2 June 2020, p. 6: "...Middle Bronze Age (2400–1800 cal BCE) people, often referred to as Sintashta, constructed nucleated settlements, with population estimates ranging from 200 to 700 individuals..."
  13. ^ Ventresca Miller, A. R., et al., (2020 a). "Close management of sheep in ancient Central Asia: evidence for foddering, transhumance, and extended lambing seasons during the Bronze and Iron Ages", in STAR, Science & Technology of Archaeological Research, p. 2: "...By 2300 cal BCE, Middle Bronze Age sites associated with Sintashta and Petrovka cultural groups in northern Kazakhstan heavily exploited domesticated cattle, sheep, and goats alongside horses with occasional hunting of wild fauna..."
  14. ^ Mallory & Mair 2008, hlm. 261.
  15. ^ Anthony 2007, hlm. 408–411.
  16. ^ Raulwing, Peter (2000). Horses, Chariots and Indo-Europeans – Foundations and Methods of Chariotry Research from the Viewpoint of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics. Budapest: Archaeolingua Alapítvány
  17. ^ Holm, Hans J. J. G. (2019): The Earliest Wheel Finds, their Archeology and Indo-European Terminology in Time and Space, and Early Migrations around the Caucasus. Series Minor 43. Budapest: ARCHAEOLINGUA ALAPÍTVÁNY. ISBN 978-615-5766-30-5
  18. ^ Hanks & Linduff 2009.
  19. ^ Semyan, Ivan, and Spyros Bakas, (2021). "Archaeological Experiment on Reconstruction of the 'Compound' Bow of the Sintashta Bronze Age Culture from the Stepnoe Cemetery", in EXARC Journal Issue 2021/2, Introduction.

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