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Dua label yang sering digunakan sebagai kebangsaan dari komponis Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart adalah "Austria" dan "Jerman". Namun, pada masa Mozart hidup, kedua istilah ini memiliki arti berbeda dengan sekarang, karena Austria dan Jerman belum berdiri sebagai negara bangsa modern seperti sekarang.

Mozart sendiri lahir di Salzburg,[1] ibu kota sebuah negara kecil yang kurang lebih berdaulat yaitu Kepangeranan Uskup Agung Salzburg.[2] Dari hal ini, dapat disebutkan bahwa kebangsaan Mozart adalah "Salzburg", tetapi penulis biografi jarang menggunakan istilah ini.[3] Salzburg adalah salah satu dari 300 negara merdeka di Eropa yang berpenduduk penutur bahasa Jerman.[4] Kebanyakan negara ini, termasuk Salzburg, bergabung dalam suatu entitas yang kebih besar, yaitu Kekaisaran Romawi Suci.[5] Kekaisaran ini memiliki identitas Jerman dalam berbagai hal, termasuk populasinya yang didominasi penutur bahasa Jerman.[6] Dari sinilah muncul asosiasi Mozart dengan Jerman. Selain itu Mozart sering disebut sebagai "seorang Austria", karena Salzburg pada saat ini menjadi bagian negara Austria modern (walaupun bukan pada masa Mozart), dan membangun kariernya di Wina, ibu kota Austria.[7]

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ Abert (2007, 1)
  2. ^ Sadie (2006, 3–4)
  3. ^ Lihat sumber-sumber artikel ini
  4. ^ Beales (2006b, 199)
  5. ^ Beales (2006a, 33)
  6. ^ Beales (2006a, 200)
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2013-04-10. Diakses tanggal 2013-02-20. , [1]

SumberSunting

  • Abert, Hermann (2007; originally published 1924). W. A. Mozart. New edition translated by Stewart Spencer and with footnotes by Cliff Eisen. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Beales, Derek (2006a) "Austria, Austrian, Austrian Monarchy," in Cliff Eisen and Simon P. Keefe, eds., The Cambridge Mozart Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Beales, Derek (2006b) "Germany," in Cliff Eisen and Simon P. Keefe, eds., The Cambridge Mozart Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Bourne, Joyce and Michael Kennedy (2004) The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Branscombe, Peter (2006) "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart", in Cliff Eisen and Simon P. Keefe, eds., The Cambridge Mozart Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Clive, Peter (1993) Mozart and his circle: A biographical dictionary. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Deutsch, Otto Erich (1965) Mozart: A Documentary Biography. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Ferris, George T. (1891) The Great German Composers. New York: D. Appleton. Available on line: [2].
  • Halliwell, Ruth (2006) Colloredo, Hieronymus Franz de Paula von, in Cliff Eisen and Simon P. Keefe, eds., The Cambridge Mozart Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Hermand, Jost and James Steakley, eds. (1981) Writings of German Composers: Bach, Mozart, Mendelssohn, Wagner, Brahms, Mahler, Strauss, Weill, and others. Continuum.
  • Heartz, Daniel (1995) Haydn, Mozart and the Viennese School: 1740–1780. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
  • Honolka, Kurt [de] (1990) Papageno: Emanuel Schikaneder, Man of the Theater in Mozart's Time. Hal Leonard Corporation.
  • The Houghton Mifflin Dictionary of Biography (2003) Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  • Kerst, Friedrich (1906) Mozart: the Man and the Artist, as Revealed in His Own Words. Translated by Henry Edward Krehbiel. London: Gay and Bird.
  • Kuhn, Laura, ed. (2001) Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. New York: Schirmer Books.
  • Leger, Louis (1889) A history of Austro-Hungary from the earliest time to the year 1889. Translated by A. B. Hill. G.P. Putnam's sons.
  • Libbey, Theodore (2006) The NPR Listener's Encyclopedia of Classical Music. Workman Publishing.
  • Lieber, Francis, E. Wigglesworth and T. G. Bradford (1832) Encyclopaedia Americana. Philadelphia.
  • MacKey, Albert G. and Harry LeRoy Haywood (1909) Encyclopedia of Freemasonry 1909.
  • Mathews, William Smythe Babcock and Emil Liebling (1896) Pronouncing and defining dictionary of music. Cincinnati: The John. Church Company.
  • Mersmann, Hans, ed. (1972) Letter of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Dover Publications.
  • Niemetschek, Franz Xaver (2007) Mozart: The First Biography, trans. Helene Mautner, with an introduction by Cliff Eisen. Berghahn Books.
  • Roman, Eric (2009) Austria-Hungary and the Successor States: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. Infobase Publishing.
  • Rosselli, John (1998) The Life of Mozart. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Rushton, Julian (2006) Mozart. The Master Musicians Series. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Sadie, Stanley (2006) Mozart: The Early Years 1756–1781. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Slonimsky, Nicolas, ed. (1984) Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. 7th edition. New York: Schirmer Books.
  • Slonimsky, Nicolas, ed. (1992) Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. 8th edition. New York: Schirmer Books.
  • Solomon, Maynard (1995) Mozart: A Life. New York: Harper Collins.

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