Kalender-kalender Mesoamerika

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Prasasti 12 dan 13 dari Monte Alban, kemungkinan berasal dari tahun 500-400 SM. Prasasti-prasasti ini mungkin merupakan kalender tertua yang telah ditemukan di Mesoamerika.[1]

Kalender-kalender Mesoamerika adalah sistem kalender yang dirancang dan digunakan oleh kebudayaan-kebudayaan pra-Kolumbus di Mesoamerika. Selain untuk ketepatan waktu, kalender-kalender Mesoamerika juga digunakan untuk ritual sosial dan keagamaan.

Kalender sudah ada di Mesoamerika paling tidak dari sekitar tahun 500 SM. Sistem kalender Mesoamerika kini masih digunakan di wilayah dataran tinggi Guatemala[2] serta di negara bagian Veracruz, Oaxaca, dan Chiapas di Meksiko.[3]

Catatan kakiSunting

  1. ^ Marcus (1992)
  2. ^ Tedlock, Barbara, Time and the Highland Maya Revised edition (1992 hlm. 1) "Scores of indigenous Guatemalan communities, principally those speaking the Mayan languages known as Ixil, Mam, Pokomchí, and Quiché, keep the 260-day cycle and (in many cases) the ancient solar cycle as well (chapter 4)."
  3. ^ Miles, Susanna W, "An Analysis of the Modern Middle American Calendars: A Study in Conservation." In Acculturation in the Americas. Edited by Sol Tax, hlm. 273. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952.

ReferensiSunting

ALMG (Academia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala) (1988). Lenguas mayas de Guatemala: documento de referencia para la pronunciación de los nuevos alfabetos oficiales. ALMG Documento 1 (dalam bahasa Spanyol). Guatemala City: Instituto Indigenista Nacional, Ministerio de Cultura y Deportes. OCLC 20330408. 
Balkansky, Andrew (2002). "Zapotec Hieroglyphic Writing, by Javier Urcid Serrano [Book Review]". Antiquity. Cambridge, England: Antiquity Publications. 76 (293): 904–905. ISSN 0003-598X. OCLC 1481624. Diakses tanggal 2006-10-20. [pranala nonaktif permanen]
Caso, Alfonso (1971). "Calendrical Systems of Central Mexico". Dalam Gordon F. Ekholm and Ignacio Bernal (Volume eds.). Handbook of Middle American Indians, Vol. 10: Archaeology of Northern Mesoamerica, part I. R. Wauchope (General Editor). Austin: University of Texas Press. hlm. 333–348. ISBN 0-292-70150-0. OCLC 277126. 
Coe, Michael D. (1987). The Maya. Ancient peoples and places series (edisi ke-4th edition (revised)). London and New York: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27455-X. OCLC 15895415. 
Edmonson, Munro S. (1988). The Book of the Year: Middle American Calendrical Systems. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. ISBN 0-87480-288-1. OCLC 17650412. 
Hassig, Ross (2001). Time, History, and Belief in Aztec and Colonial Mexico. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-73139-6. OCLC 44167649. 
Kettunen, Harri; Christophe Helmke (2005). Introduction to Maya Hieroglyphs (PDF online publication). Wayeb and Leiden University. Diakses tanggal 2008-08-07. 
Marcus, Joyce (1992). Mesoamerican Writing Systems: Propaganda, Myth, and History in Four Ancient Civilizations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09474-8. OCLC 25549355. 
Nowotny, Karl Anton (2005). Tlacuilolli: style and contents of the Mexican pictorial manuscripts with a catalog of the Borgia Group. George A. Everett, Jr. and Edward B. Sisson (trans. and eds.), with a foreword by Ferdinand Anders. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3653-7. OCLC 56527102.