Jai Shri Ram

Jai Shri Ram[a] (Jaya Śrī Rāma) adalah sebuah ekspresi seruan dalam bahasa Indic, yang diterjemahkan menjadi "Kejayaan untuk Tuan Rama" atau "Kemenangan untuk Tuan Rama".[6] Seruan tersebut dipakai oleh umat Hindu sebagai penyambutan informal,[7] sebagai simbol ketaatan terhadap kepercayaan Hindu,[8] atau untuk perlindungan terhadap emosi yang terpusat pada berbagai keyakinan.[9][10][11]

Patung Rama di Ayodhya

Seruan tersebut dipakai oleh organisasi-organisasi nasionalis Hindu India seperti Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP), Partai Bharatiya Janata (BJP) dan sekutu-sekutu mereka, yang memakai slogan tersebut sejak akhir abad ke-20 sebagai alat untuk meningkatkan visibilitas Hindu di tempat-tempat umum dan dipakai sebagai seruan pertempuran. Namun sayangnya di India slogan tersebut sering disalahgunakan untuk kemudian dipakai dalam kekerasan komunal melawan orang-orang dari kepercayaan dan/atau golongan lain.[23]

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CatatanSunting

  1. ^ Juga dikenal sebagai Jai Sri Ram,[1][2][3] Jai Shree Ram,[4] atau Jai Shri Rama.[5]

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ a b Engineer, Asghar Ali (14 November 1992). "Sitamarhi on Fire" . Economic and Political Weekly. 27 (46): 2462–2464. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4399118. Diakses tanggal 16 February 2021 – via JSTOR. Kalam Husain, an eyewitness told us that a mob consisting of brahmins, bhumihars, rajputs, kurmis and chamars (SC) looted and burnt all the houses of 150 Muslims belonging to 36 families living in Ashogi. They were shouting slogan 'Jai Sri Ram'. 
  2. ^ a b Nussbaum, Martha C. (18 August 2008). "The Clash Within: Democracy and the Hindu Right" . Journal of Human Development. Routledge. 9 (3): 357–375. doi:10.1080/14649880802236565. ISSN 1464-9888. Diakses tanggal 16 February 2021. In the days that followed, wave upon wave of violence swept through the state. The attackers were Hindus, many of them highly politicized, shouting Hindu-right slogans, such as 'Jai Sri Ram' (a religious invocation wrenched from its original devotional and peaceful meaning) and 'Jai Sri Hanuman' (a monkey god portrayed by the right as aggressive), along with 'Kill, Destroy!', 'Slaughter!' 
  3. ^ a b Staples, James (7 November 2019). "Blurring Bovine Boundaries: Cow Politics and the Everyday in South India" . South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. Routledge. 42 (6): 1125–1140. doi:10.1080/00856401.2019.1669951. ISSN 0085-6401. Diakses tanggal 16 February 2021. The vigilantes had seized more than Rs30,000 worth of beef and contaminated it with phenyl. They also beat up the driver, threw him face down into the Musi river, and forced him to chant 'Jai Sri Ram! (Victory to [the Hindu deity] Ram!)' before finally letting him go. 
  4. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama BBC chant
  5. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Tully 2017
  6. ^ "The Hindu chant that became a murder cry". BBC News. 10 July 2019. Diakses tanggal 4 February 2020. 
  7. ^ Menon, Kalyani Devaki (6 July 2011). "Notes". Everyday Nationalism: Women of the Hindu Right in India (dalam bahasa Inggris). University of Pennsylvania Press. hlm. 190. doi:10.9783/9780812202793. ISBN 978-0-8122-0279-3. JSTOR j.ctt3fj1wh. [pranala nonaktif permanen]
  8. ^ Poonam, Snigdha (13 February 2020). "The 3 Most Polarizing Words in India". Foreign Policy. Diakses tanggal 1 August 2020. 
  9. ^ Ramachandran, Tanisha (1 March 2014). "A call to multiple arms! protesting the commoditization of hindu imagery in western society". Material Religion. 10 (1): 54–75. doi:10.2752/175183414X13909887177547. ISSN 1743-2200. 
  10. ^ "Modi's party will grow stronger in West Bengal". Emerald Expert Briefings (dalam bahasa Inggris). 20 August 2019. doi:10.1108/OXAN-DB245910. ISSN 2633-304X. 
  11. ^ Dasgupta, Amlan (2006). Bakhle, Janaki, ed. "Rhythm and Rivalry". Economic and Political Weekly. 41 (36): 3861–3863. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4418675. 
  12. ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe (4 January 2003). "Communal Riots in Gujarat: The State at Risk?" (PDF). Heidelberg Papers in South Asian and Comparative Politics. Heidelberg University (17): 3. doi:10.11588/heidok.00004127. ISSN 1617-5069. Diakses tanggal 16 February 2021. They chanted Hindu nationalist songs and slogans throughout the entire voyage, all the while harassing Muslim passengers. One family was even made to get off the train for refusing to utter the kar sevaks' war cry: "Jai Shri Ram!" (Glory to Lord Ram!). More abuse occurred at the stop in Godhra: a Muslim shopkeeper was also ordered to shout “Jai Shri Ram!” He refused, and was assaulted until the kar sevaks turned on a Muslim woman with her two daughters. 
  13. ^ Breman, Jan (17 April 1993). "Anti-Muslim Pogrom in Surat" . Economic and Political Weekly. 28 (16): 737–741. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4399608. Diakses tanggal 16 February 2021 – via JSTOR. Through a hole in the wall he had seen how adults and children were beaten and kicked to death. The hunters forced their catch to shout 'Jai Shri Ram'. "I can't hear you. Louder, say it louder...". "Oh, merciful Allah, Jai Shri Ram". And then came the last kick, final cut or was the body, soaked with petrol, set alight. 
  14. ^ Menon, Nivedita (6–12 July 2002). "Surviving Gujarat 2002" . Economic and Political Weekly. 37 (27): 2676–2678. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4412315. Diakses tanggal 16 February 2021 – via JSTOR. The taunts about circumcision, the desecration of Qurans and mosques, the demolition of dargahs, the forced shouting of 'Jai Shri Ram' before being cut into pieces. 
  15. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Sarkar 1999
  16. ^ Sarkar, Sumit (30 January 1993). "The Fascism of the Sangh Parivar". Economic and Political Weekly. 28 (5): 163–167. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4399339. Diakses tanggal 16 February 2021 – via Academia.edu. The Bajrang Dal thugs often openly declare that anyone who criticises the destruction of the Babri Masjid will have to go to Pakistan, while in the selectively curfew-bound Muslim pockets of Seelampur in east Delhi, the police had rounded up all Muslim men in some areas, beaten them up unless they agreed to say Jai Shri Ram, and even pulled out the beard of a Muslim gentleman. 
  17. ^ Ludden, David (April 1996). Contesting the Nation: Religion, Community, and the Politics of Democracy in India  (dalam bahasa Inggris). University of Pennsylvania Press. hlm. 259. ISBN 978-0-8122-1585-4. Diakses tanggal 16 February 2021 – via Google Books. In the anti-Muslim riots in Surat and Bombay after December 6, 1992, the victims were forced to utter Jai Shri Ram ("Hail to Lord Rama") before they were killed or raped (Engineer 1993, 263; S. Chandra 1993a, 1883). 
  18. ^ Rambachan, Anantanand (20 April 2017). "The Coexistence of Violence and Nonviolence in Hinduism" . Journal of Ecumenical Studies (dalam bahasa Inggris). University of Pennsylvania Press. 52 (1): 96–104. doi:10.1353/ecu.2017.0001. ISSN 2162-3937. Diakses tanggal 16 February 2021. In light of Gandhi's significance, many were surprised and bewildered when, on December 6, 1992, thousands of Hindu volunteers broke through police cordons and demolished the Babri mosque in the holy city of Ayodhya in North India. Many were armed with tridents, the traditional iconographic weapon of Shiva and were led by Hindu holy men chanting "Jai Shri Ram" (Victory to Ram). 
  19. ^ Gudipaty, Nagamallika (2017), "Television, Political Imagery, and Elections in India", dalam Ngwainmbi, Emmanuel K., Citizenship, Democracies, and Media Engagement among Emerging Economies and Marginalized Communities  (dalam bahasa Inggris), Springer International, hlm. 117–145, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-56215-5_6, ISBN 978-3-319-56215-5, diakses tanggal 16 February 2021 – via Google Books, Women were raped and then burned alive; men were made to shout "Jai Shri Ram" and then cut to pieces; children were not spared. According to records later submitted in court, Jafri was stripped and paraded naked before the attackers cut off his fingers and legs and dragged his body into a burning pyre. 
  20. ^ Ghassem-Fachandi, Parvis (1 August 2009). "Bandh in Ahmedabad" . Violence: Ethnographic Encounters  (dalam bahasa Inggris). Berg. ISBN 978-1-84788-418-3. Diakses tanggal 16 February 2021. If mobs successfully entered Muslim compounds, they killed the men, raped the women before killing them and burned the residences to the ground. Surviving eyewitnesses have reported widely that Muslim victims were made to speak Jai Shri Ram ("Hail Lord Ram") and Vande Mataram ("Hail to the Mother") before being killed. 
  21. ^ Salam, Ziya Us (16 August 2019). ""Jai Shri Ram": The new battle cry". Frontline (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diakses tanggal 16 February 2021. Unlike his first innings, when the cow was used as a political animal to lynch unarmed Muslim and Dalit men, this time Muslim, Dalit and even Christian men have been assaulted and forced to chant "Jai Shri Ram". From Jharkhand to Assam, from Mumbai to Delhi, neither small-town India nor the big metropolises are safe from these lynch mobs. 
  22. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Scroll800Yrs19
  23. ^ [1][2][3][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22]

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