Hudson Taylor: Perbedaan revisi

17.955 bita ditambahkan ,  6 tahun yang lalu
Tambahan
k (Bot: Migrasi 14 pranala interwiki, karena telah disediakan oleh Wikidata pada item d:Q470718)
(Tambahan)
}}
'''James Hudson Taylor''' (Tionghoa: '''戴德生''') (21 Mei 1832 - 3 Juni 1905), adalah [[misionaris]] [[Protestan]] asal Inggris, dan pendiri [[China Inland Mission]] (CIM) (sekarang [[OMF International]]). Taylor menghabiskan 51 tahun di Cina, dan mampu berkhotbah dalam beberapa jenis bahasa Tionghoa, di antaranya [[Mandarin]], [[Chaozhou]], dan [[dialek Wu]] dari Shanghai dan Ningbo. Yang terakhir ini ia menguasainya dengan cukup baik untuk membantunya menyusun edisi bahasa sehari-hari dari Perjanjian Baru.<ref>{{cite book | last = Christian Literature Society for China | year = 1911 | title = [http://www.archive.org/download/chinamissionyear02unknuoft/chinamissionyear02unknuoft.pdf The China Mission Year Book] | publisher = Christian Literature Society for China | location = Shanghai}} pp. 281-282</ref>
 
==Kronologi==
'''Lahir sampai usia 21 1832-1853'''
*'''Lahir tanggal 21 Mei 1832''' di Barnsley, Inggris
*'''Masuk menjadi orang Kristen''' Juni 1849 di Barnsley
*Mulai studi kedokteran, dengan harapan akan pergi ke Tiongkok, Mei 1850 di [[Kingston upon Hull]]
*Dibaptis tahun 1851 di Kingston upon Hull
*Pindah tanggal 2 September 1852 ke London
 
'''Kunjungan pertama di Tiongkok 1854'''
*'''Berlayar ke Tiongkok naik kapal "the Dumfries" sebagai agen dari [[Chinese Evangelisation Society]]''' 19 September 1853 dari [[Liverpool]], Lancashire, Inggris
*The Dumfries tiba tanggal 1 Maret 1854 di Shanghai, Tiongkok
*Tujuh bulan bersama [[William Chalmers Burns]] 1855–1856
*Berlayar ke [[Shantou]] (Swatow), [[Guangdong]], Tiongkok naik kapal "Geelong" 12 Maret 1856
*Pindah pada bulan Oktober 1856 ke [[Ningbo]], [[Zhejiang]], Tiongkok
<!--*Resigned from the Chinese Evangelisation Society June 1857 in Ningbo
*Ningbo Mission started after June 1857 in Ningbo-->
*Menikah dengan Maria Jane Dyer, 20 Januari 1858 di Presbyterian Compound, Ningbo
*Grace Dyer Taylor lahir tanggal 31 Juli 1859 di Ningbo Mission House<!--
*Undertook charge of William Parker's hospital with Maria, September 1859 outside Salt Gate, Ningbo
*Makes first appeal to England for helpers 16 January 1860 in Ningbo
-->
 
'''Tinggal di London 1860-1866'''
*'''Berlayar ke Inggris''' (melalui [[Tanjung Harapan Baik]]) dalam masa liburan naik kapal "Jubliee"<!--Jubliee adalah ejaan yang tepat (bukan Jubilee)--> bersama Maria, Grace dan Wang Laijun, 19 Juli 1860 dari Shanghai. The Jubliee tiba tanggal 20 November 1860 di Gravesend, Inggris
*Menetap sejak tanggal 20 November 1860 di 63 Westbourne Grove, [[Bayswater]], London
*Menyelesaikan revisi [[Perjanjian Baru]] dalam bahasa sehari-hari Ningbo untuk [[British and Foreign Bible Society]] 1860–1865
*Herbert Hudson Taylor lahir tanggal 3 April 1861 di 63 Westbourne Grove, Bayswater, London
<!--*Moved after 9 April 1861 to 1 Beaumont Street, London
*Earned diploma of Member of the Royal College of Surgeons 1862 in [[Royal London Hospital]], London
*Frederick Howard Taylor born 25 November 1862 in 1 Beaumont Street, London
*Samuel Dyer Taylor born 24 June 1864 in Barnsley, Yorkshire
*Moved 6 October 1864 to 30 Coborn Street, London
*The China Inland Mission founded, 25 June 1865 in [[Brighton]] Beach, Sussex
*''[[Wikisource:China's Spiritual Need and Claims|China's Spiritual Need and Claims]]'' published, October 1865 in London
*Occasional Paper of the China Inland Mission Number 1 is published, 12 March 1866 in London
 
'''Kunjungan ke-2 di Tiongkok 1866-1871'''
*'''Berlayar ke Tiongkok''' <!--(via the Cape of Good Hope) aboard the Lammermuir with Maria and four children, 26 May 1866 in [[East India Docks]], London.--> Kapal Lammermuir tiba tanggal 29 September 1866 di Shanghai, Tiongkok
*Settled with the [[Lammermuir Party]], December 1866 in 1 Xin Kai Long (New Lane), [[Hangzhou]], Zhejiang
*Maria Hudson Taylor born 3 February 1867 in 1 Xin Kai Long (New Lane), Hangzhou
*Daughter Grace Dyer Taylor died 23 August 1867 di a temple at Pengshan, near Hangzhou
*Survived riot with Maria, 22 August 1868 di Yangzhou
*Charles Edward Taylor born 29 November 1868 di Yangzhou
*Entered into "The Exchanged Life": — "God has made me a new man!" 4 September 1869-->
*Putranya, Samuel Dyer Taylor, meninggal tanggal 4 Februari 1870 di atas sebuah perahu di [[Yangtze River]] dekat [[Zhenjiang]]
*Noel Taylor lahir tanggal 7 July 1870 di Zhenjiang
*Son Noel meninggal 13 hari setelah lahir tanggal 20 July 1870 di Zhenjiang
*Maria Jane Dyer meninggal tanggal 23 Juli 1870 di Zhenjiang
 
'''Liburan dan pernikahan ke-2 1871-1872'''
*Berlayar ke [[Marseilles]] dalam liburan melalui [[Saigon]], [[Sri Langka]], [[Aden]], [[Suez]] naik kapal MM Ava setelah 5 Agustus 1871 dari Guangzhou, Guangdong, Tiongkok. Tiba di Inggris 25 September 1871 dari Marseilles, Perancis (lewat Paris ke London)
*Menikah dengan Jane Elizabeth Faulding, 28 November 1871 di [[Regent's Park Chapel]], London
*Pindah tanggal 15 Januari 1872 ke 6 Pyrland Road, Islington, London
 
'''Kunjungan ke-3 di Tiongkok 1872 to 1874'''
*Berlayar ke Tiongkok naik kapal [[M M Tigre]] bersama Jennie, 9 Oktober 1872<!-- from Marseilles, France (via Paris from London). M M Tigre arrived 28 November 1872 in Shanghai, Tiongkok
*Baby son (twin) Taylor born 13 April 1873 in [[Nanjing]], [[Jiangsu]], Tiongkok
*Baby daughter (twin) Taylor born 14 April 1873 in Nanjing, Jiangsu, Tiongkok
*Falls from steps in a river boat and hurts spine May 1874 in China
 
'''Recovering in England 1874-1876'''
*Sailed to England on furlough with Jennie, 30 August 1874. Arrived, 15 October 1874 in England
*Paralyzed during winter 1874–1875 in London
*'''An appeal for eighteen workers is published January 1875 in London'''
*Ernest Hamilton Taylor born 7 January 1875 in 2 Pyrland Road, Islington
*''[https://archive.org/details/chinasmillions00tayl China's Millions]'' Vol. 1, No. 1, published July 1875 in London
*Amy H. Taylor born 7 April 1876 in Islington-->
 
'''Kunjungan ke-4 di Tiongkok 1876-1877'''
*Berlayar ke Tiongkok 8 September 1876. Tiba tanggal 22 Oktober 1876 di Tiongkok
<!--*General Missionary Conference 10 May 1877 in Shanghai, Tiongkok
*Sailed to England 9 November 1877. Arrived 20 December 1877 in England-->
 
'''Kunjungan ke-5 di Tiongkok 1879-1883'''
*Berlayar ke Tiongkok 24 Februari 1879. Tiba tanggal 22 April 1879 di Tiongkok
<!--*First visit August 1880 in [[Guangxin River]], [[Jiangxi]]
*Leaves for England 6 February 1883 in [[Yantai]] (Chefoo)
*Sailed to England on furlough 10 February 1883. Arrived 27 March 1883 in England-->
 
'''Kunjungan ke-6 di Tiongkok 1885-1888'''
*Berlayar ke Tiongkok 20 Januari 1885. Tiba tanggal 3 Maret 1885 di Tiongkok
<!--*Second visit May 1886 in Guangxin (Kwangsin) River, Jiangxi
*Pastor Hsi set apart 5 August 1886 in Shanxi
*'''First meeting of China Council, Appeal for "[[The Hundred missionaries]]" 13 November 1886 di China'''
*Sailed to England 9 January 1887. Arrived 18 February 1887 in England
*Addressed the [[Keswick Convention]] after February 1887 in Keswick, England
*Sailed to US aboard the [[RMS Etruria]] 23 June 1888. Arrived 1 July 1888 in New York City, attended [[Niagara Bible Conference]] and crossed the continent on the [[Canadian Pacific Railway]].-->
 
'''Kunjungan ke-7 di Tiongkok 1888-1889'''
*Berlayar ke Tiongkok dari Vancouver, Kanada lewat Yokohama, Jepang 5 Oktober 1888. Tiba tanggal 30 Oktober 1888 di Shanghai, Tiongkok
<!--*Sailed to England via France 12 April 1889. Tiba di England 21 May 1889
*Arrived 6 July 1889 in New York City
*Sailed to England 17 August 1889. Arrived 24 August 1889 in England-->
*''[http://www.worldinvisible.com/library/hudsontaylor/hudsontaylorv2/hudsontaylorv233.htm To Every Creature]'' diterbitkan Oktober 1889 di London
 
'''Kunjungan ke-8 di Tiongkok 1890-1892'''
*Berlayar ke Tiongkok 17 Maret 1890. Tiba 27 April 1890 in Shanghai, Tiongkok
<!--*Preached opening sermon at General Missionary Conference 7 May 1890 in Shanghai, Tiongkok
*'''Sailed to Australia 26 August 1890'''. Berlayar ke Tiongkok 20 November 1890. Tiba 21 December 1890 in Shanghai, Tiongkok
*Arrived with Jennie, March 1892 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
*Sailed to England via Canada with Jennie, 10 May 1892. Arrived with Jennie, 26 July 1892 in England
*Addressed the Keswick Convention 1893 in Keswick, England
*''Union and Communion'' published 1893 in England
*''[http://www.wholesomewords.org/missions/biotaylor6.pdf A Retrospect]'' autobiography published 1894 in England
*Provided testimony to the [[Royal Commission on Opium]] as an opponent of the trade. before 14 February 1894 in England-->
 
'''Kunjungan ke-9 di Tiongkok 1894-1897'''
*Berlayar ke Tiongkok melalui AS naik kapal [[SS Germanic (1875)|RMS Germanic]] bersama Jennie, 14 Februari 1894 dari Liverpool dan Queenstown, Inggris
<!--*Arrived aboard the RMS Germanic with Jennie, 24 February 1894 in Ellis Island, New York-->
*<!--Spoke at Students' Conference after 24 February 1894 in [[Detroit]], Michigan.--> Tiba bersama Jennie, 17 April 1894 in Shanghai, Tiongkok
*Sailed aboard the Oceania (M. M. Oceanien?) with Jennie, 2 May 1896. Arrived, 17 June 1896 in England
*Addressed the Keswick Convention after 17 June 1896 in Keswick, England
*Daughter Maria Hudson Taylor died 28 September 1897 in [[Wenzhou]], Zhejiang, Tiongkok
*Sailed to US with Jennie, 24 November 1897. Arrived with Jennie, 18 December 1897 in US-->
*''[[Wikisource:Separation and Service|Separation and Service]]'' diterbitkan tahun 1898 di Inggris
 
'''Kunjungan ke-10 di Tiongkok'''
*Tiba dengan Jennie, 15 Januari 1898 di Shanghai, Tiongkok
*''[[Wikisource:A Ribband of Blue And Other Bible Studies|A Ribband of Blue, and other Bible Studies]]'' diterbitkan pada tahun 1899 di Inggris
*Konferensi, 16 Januari 1899 di [[Chongqing]], [[Sichuan]], Tiongkok
*Menghadiri pertemuan-pertemuan China Council 28 Juni 1899 di Shanghai
*Berlayar ke Australia, Selandia Baru, dan AS bersama Jennie, 25 September 1899. Tiba, 5 April 1900 di [[San Francisco]], AS
*Berpidato pada [[Ecumenical Missions Conference]] setelah 5 April 1900 di [[Carnegie Hall]], New York City
*Berlayar ke Inggris dari AS bersama Jennie, ketika Boxer Uprising dimulai di Tiongkok, 9 Juni 1900. Tiba, 19 Juni 1900 di Inggris
*Pensiun bersama Jennie, setelah 19 Juni 1900 di [[Davos]], Swiss
*'''Mengundurkan diri dari jabatan "Director of the China Inland Mission"''' November 1902
*Jane Elizabeth "Jennie" Faulding meninggal tanggal 31 Juli 1904 di [[Les Chevalleyres]], Swiss
 
'''Kunjungan ke-11 dan terakhir di Tiongkok'''
*Berlayar ke Amerika Serikat (New York City) naik kapal [[RMS Baltic]] 15 Februari 1905 dari Liverpool, Lancashire, England. Tiba pada bulan Maret 1905 di New York City
*Berlayar ke Tiongkok dari San Francisco, 23 Maret 1905. Tiba tanggal 17 April 1905 di Shanghai, Tiongkok.
*'''Meninggal pada tanggal 3 Juni 1905 di [[Changsha]], [[Hunan]], Tiongkok. Dimakamkan pada tanggal 9 Juni 1905 di Protestant Cemetery (sekarang tidak ada lagi) di [[Zhenjiang]], [[Jiangsu]], Tiongkok
 
'''Pemakaman ulang'''
*Jenazah dikebumikan ulang di suatu gereja lokal di Zhenjiang, setelah 28 Agustus 2013
 
==Karya==
* ''Ah-lah kyiu-cü Yiæ-su Kyi-toh-go Sing Iah Shü : peng-veng fæn Nying-po t'u-wô. Feng p'in-tang-p'in: Yih-pin cü siang-te-go tsih-tsông.'' (''New Testament in the Ningbo Dialect. Part 1'') (1865)
* ''[[Wikisource:China's Spiritual Need and Claims|China's Spiritual Need and Claims]]'' (1865)<ref name="Taylor1865">{{cite book|author=James Hudson Taylor|title=China spiritual need and claims|url=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China%27s_Spiritual_Need_and_Claims|year=1865|publisher=James Nisbet}}</ref>
* ''China & the Chinese'' an address to the Young (1865)
* ''[https://archive.org/details/chinasmillions00tayl China's Millions]''<ref>{{cite book|quote=|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=NmYQAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false|title=China's millions|volume=|author=China Inland Mission|year=1886|edition=|editor=J. Hudson Taylor|publisher=China Inland Mission|location=Hazell, Watson, and Viney, London and Aylesbury|page=|isbn=|pages=|accessdate=21 March 2012}}</ref>
* ''[http://www.whatsaiththescripture.com/Text.Only/pdfs/Union_And_Communion_Text.pdf Union & Communion]'' (1893)
* ''[http://www.wholesomewords.org/missions/biotaylor6.pdf A Retrospect]'' (1894)
* ''[http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100161283 After Thirty Years]'' (1895)
* ''[[Wikisource:Separation and Service|Separation and Service]]'' (1898)
* ''[[Wikisource:A Ribband of Blue And Other Bible Studies|A Ribband of Blue And Other Bible Studies]]'' (1899)
 
==Arsip==
Tulisan-tulisan dan surat-surat yang berkaitan dengan James Hudson Taylor disimpan sebagai bagian koleksi "China Inland Mission" oleh "Archives of the [[School of Oriental and African Studies]]" di London.<ref>[http://www.soas.ac.uk/library/archives/ Arsip perpustakaan SOAS]</ref>
 
== Referensi ==
{{Reflist}}
 
==Pustaka tambahan==
{{kristen-bio-stub}}
* {{cite book | first = Evan | last = Davies | authorlink = Evan Davies (missionary) | year = 1846 | title = The Memoir of Samuel Dyer: Sixteen Years Missionary to the Chinese | publisher = John Snow | location = London}}
* {{cite book | first = Dr. and Mrs. Howard | last = Taylor | authorlink = Frederick Howard Taylor | year = 1911 | title = Hudson Taylor In Early Years; The Growth of a Soul | url = http://worldinvisible.com/library/hudsontaylor/hudsontaylorv1/hudsontaylorv1tc.htm | publisher = Morgan and Scott | location = London}}
* {{cite book | first = Dr. and Mrs. Howard | last = Taylor | authorlink = Frederick Howard Taylor | year = 1918 | title = Hudson Taylor and the China Inland Mission; The Growth of a Work of God | url = http://worldinvisible.com/library/hudsontaylor/hudsontaylorv2/hudsontaylorv2tc.htm | publisher = Morgan and Scott | location = London}}
* {{cite book | first = Alfred | last = Broomhall | authorlink = Alfred James Broomhall | year = 1982 | title = Hudson Taylor and China's Open Century: Barbarians at the Gates | publisher = Hodder and Stoughton | location = London}}
* {{cite book | first = Alfred | last = Broomhall | authorlink = Alfred James Broomhall | year = 1982 | title = Hudson Taylor and China's Open Century: Over The Treaty Wall | publisher = Hodder and Stoughton | location = London}}
* {{cite book | first = Alfred | last = Broomhall | authorlink = Alfred James Broomhall | year = 1983 | title = Hudson Taylor and China's Open Century: If I had A Thousand Lives | publisher = Hodder and Stoughton | location = London}}
* {{cite book | first = Alfred | last = Broomhall | authorlink = Alfred James Broomhall | year = 1984 | title = Hudson Taylor and China's Open Century: Survivor's Pact | publisher = Hodder and Stoughton | location = London}}
* {{cite book | first = Alfred | last = Broomhall | authorlink = Alfred James Broomhall | year = 1985 | title = Hudson Taylor and China's Open Century, Book Five: Refiner's Fire | publisher = Hodder and Stoughton | location = London }}
* {{cite book | first = Alfred | last = Broomhall | authorlink = Alfred James Broomhall | year = 1986 | title = Hudson Taylor and China's Open Century: Assault On The Nine | publisher = Hodder and Stoughton | location = London}}
* {{cite book | first = Alfred | last = Broomhall | authorlink = Alfred James Broomhall | year = 1989 | title = Hudson Taylor and China's Open Century: It Is Not Death To Die | publisher = Hodder and Stoughton | location = London}}
* {{cite book | first = Marshall | last = Broomhall | authorlink = Marshall Broomhall | year = 1901 | title = Last Letters and Further Records of Martyred Missionaries of the China Inland Mission | url = http://www.archive.org/download/lastlettersfurth00unknuoft/lastlettersfurth00unknuoft.pdf | publisher = Morgan and Scott | location = London}}
* {{cite book | first = N. Gist| last = Gee | authorlink = | year = 1905 | title = The Educational Directory for China | url = http://books.google.com/books?id=PQcBAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA43&dq=china+inland+mission#PPR8,M1 | publisher = Educational Association of China | location = Suzhou}}
* {{cite book | first = Roger | last = Steer | authorlink = Roger Steer | year = 1990 | title = Hudson Taylor: A Man In Christ | publisher = Hodder and Stoughton | location = London}}
* {{cite book | last = Christian Literature Society for China | year = 1911 | title = The China Mission Year Book | url = http://www.archive.org/download/chinamissionyear02unknuoft/chinamissionyear02unknuoft.pdf | publisher = Christian Literature Society for China | location = Shanghai}}
* {{cite book | first = James Hudson III | last = Taylor | authorlink = James Hudson Taylor III | year = 2005 | title = Christ Alone: A Pictorial Presentation of Hudson Taylor's Life and Legacy | publisher = OMF Books | location = Hong Kong}}
* {{cite book | first = Ruth | last = Tucker | authorlink = Ruth A. Tucker | year = 1983 | title = From Jerusalem to Irian Jaya: A Biographical History of Christian Missions | publisher = Zondervan | location = Grand Rapids, Michigan| isbn = 0-310-23937-0}}
*[[Historical Bibliography of the China Inland Mission]]
*''According to your Faith,'' George Morrish, London, n.d.
*Hudson Taylor. ''Christian History & Biography'' #52.
*Petersen, William J. ''C. S. Lewis Had a Wife; Catherine Marshall Had a Husband.'' Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndale House, 1986. Has a chapter on Hudson Taylor's marriage.
*Taylor, Dr. and Mrs. Howard. J. ''Hudson Taylor; God's Man in China.'' Chicago: Moody Press, 1965.
*"Taylor, James Hudson." ''The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church.'' Edited by F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone. Oxford, 1997.
*"Taylor, James Hudson." ''Biographical Dictionary of Evangelicals.'' Timothy Larsen, editor. Downers-Grove, Illinois: Intevarsity Press, 2003.
 
==Pranala luar==
{{Commons category}}
{{wikisourcepar|Author:J. Hudson Taylor|J. Hudson Taylor}}
{{wikiquotepar|James Hudson Taylor}}
* {{Gutenberg author |id=Taylor,+James+Hudson}}
* {{Internet Archive author |sname=James Hudson Taylor |sopt=t}}
* {{Librivox author |id=1534}}
* [http://www.wholesomewords.org/biography/biorptaylor.html Christian Biography Resources]
* [http://www.spurgeon.org/s_and_t/totkc.htm Spurgeon's "Interviews with Three of the King's Captains"]
* [http://www.genealogy.com/users/y/o/r/Brian-York-Burnsville/?Welcome=1091209026 Genealogy.com: The family of James Hudson Taylor]
* [http://www.hudsontaylorcentre.ca/?q=en/node/1 Hudson Taylor Centre for Chinese Ministries], [[Tyndale University College and Seminary]], Toronto, ON
* [http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GSln=Taylor&GSiman=1&GScid=2511879&GRid=37625187& Hudson Taylor Grave]
 
{{s-start}}
{{s-rel}}
{{s-bef|before=(none)}}
{{s-ttl|title=Director of the [[China Inland Mission]]
|years=1865–1900}}
{{s-aft|after=[[Dixon Edward Hoste]]}}
{{end}}
 
[[Kategori:Penulis Kristen]]
[[Kategori:Penerjemah Alkitab]]
[[Kategori:Tokoh Kristen Britania Raya]]