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|name = Kylie Jenner
|image = Kylie Jenner (cropped).jpg
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|caption =
Last modified on 17 August 2015, at 16:29
|birth_name = Kylie Kristen Jenner
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|birth_date = {{birth date and age|mf=yes|1997|8|10|16}}
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|birth_place = [[Calabasas, California]], U.S.
Ben Richardson (cinematographer)
|height = {{convert|5|ft|9|in|m|abbr=on|2}}
Benjamin T. Richardson is a British cinematographer. He is best known for the feature films Beasts of the Southern Wild and The Fault in Our Stars.
|occupation = Model, presenter televisi
|known for = ''[[Keeping Up with the Kardashians]]''
|years active = 2007–sekarang
|parents = [[Kris Jenner]]<br/>[[Bruce Jenner]]
|relatives = [[Kendall Jenner]] <small>(saudara perempuan)</small><br/>[[Brody Jenner]] <small>(saudara tiri)</small><br>[[Brandon Jenner]] <small>(saudara tiri)</small><br/>[[Kourtney Kardashian]] <small>(saudari tiri)</small><br/>[[Kim Kardashian]] <small>(saudari tiri)</small><br/>[[Khloe Kardashian]] <small>(saudari tiri)</small><br/>[[Rob Kardashian]] <small>(saudara tiri)</small>
}}
 
'''Kylie Kristen Jenner''' (lahir 10 Agustus 1997) adalah bintang acara realitas televisi [[Amerika]], model dan brand ambassador untuk ''[[Seventeen (majalah)|Seventeen]]''. Dia dikenal untuk tampil di acara realitas TV [[E!]] ''[[Keeping Up with the Kardashians]]'' bersama keluarganya.
Biography Edit
 
Pada 2013, Jenner merilis koleksi eksklusif di bawah [[PacSun]], dirancang bersama kakaknya, [[Kendall Jenner|Kendall]].<ref>http://www.pacsun.com/content/kendall-kylie.html</ref>
Richardson was born in England and attended Royal Holloway, University of London's media arts degree program.[1]
 
Career Edit
 
Richardson is a director of photography. Two of his films, Beasts of the Southern Wild and Happy Christmas, have premiered at the Sundance Film Festival. Beasts of the Southern Wild was also nominated for four Academy Awards at the 85th Academy Awards, including one for Best Picture. His short film Seed won Best Animated Short at the 2010 Slamdance Film Festival.
 
Beasts of the Southern Wild Edit
Richardson met director Benh Zeitlin in Prague in 2004[2] and subsequently collaborated on the short film Glory at Sea in 2008.[3] During pre-production on Beasts of the Southern Wild, Richardson shot a test reel which convinced the financiers to approve him as cinematographer for the film.[4]
 
Beasts of the Southern Wild debuted at the 2012 Sundance Film Festival where Richardson won the Excellence in Cinematography Award.[5] For his work on the film he also won the Independent Spirit Award for Best Cinematography, and was nominated for multiple awards including a Camerimage award and a Satellite Award.[6]
 
Filmography Edit
 
Feature films Edit
Digging for Fire (2015)
Cut Bank (2014)
Happy Christmas (2014)
The Fault in Our Stars (2014)
Drinking Buddies (2013)
Beasts of the Southern Wild (2012)
Music Videos Edit
Passion Pit "Carried Away" (2013)
References
 
External links
 
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Arnold Schwarzenegger
"Schwarzenegger" redirects here. For other people of the same name, see Schwarzenegger (surname).
"Schwarzy" redirects here. For the character, Logainne "Schwarzy" SchwarzandGrubenierre, see The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee.
Arnold Schwarzenegger
Arnold Schwarzenegger February 2015.jpg
38th Governor of California
In office
November 17, 2003 – January 3, 2011
Lieutenant Cruz Bustamante (2003–2007)
John Garamendi (2007–2009)
Mona Pasquil (acting; 2009–2010)
Abel Maldonado (2010–2011)
Preceded by Gray Davis
Succeeded by Jerry Brown
Personal details
Born Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger
July 30, 1947 (age 68)
Thal, Styria, Austria
Citizenship
Austria
United States
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Maria Shriver (m. 1986; s. 2011)
Children 5, including Katherine and Patrick
Alma mater Santa Monica College
University of Wisconsin, Superior
Religion Roman Catholicism[1]
Signature
Website schwarzenegger.com
Military service
Allegiance Austria
Service/branch Austrian Armed Forces
Years of service 1965
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (/ˈʃwɔrtsənɛɡər/; German: [ˈaɐnɔlt ˈalɔʏs ˈʃvaɐtsənɛɡɐ]; born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American actor, model, producer, director, activist, businessman, investor, writer, philanthropist, former professional bodybuilder, and politician. Schwarzenegger served two terms as the 38th Governor of California from 2003 until 2011.
 
Schwarzenegger began weight training at the age of 15. He won the Mr. Universe title at age 20 and went on to win the Mr. Olympia contest seven times. Schwarzenegger has remained a prominent presence in bodybuilding and has written many books and articles on the sport. Schwarzenegger gained worldwide fame as a Hollywood action film icon. Schwarzenegger's breakthrough film was the sword-and-sorcery epic Conan the Barbarian in 1982, which was a box-office hit and resulted in a sequel.[2] In 1984, he appeared in James Cameron's science-fiction thriller film The Terminator, which was a massive critical and box-office success. Schwarzenegger subsequently reprised the Terminator character in the franchise's later installments in 1991, 2003, and 2015.[2][3][4] He appeared in a number of successful films, such as Commando (1985), The Running Man (1987), Predator (1987), Twins (1988), Total Recall (1990), Kindergarten Cop (1990) and True Lies (1994). He was nicknamed the "Austrian Oak" and the "Styrian Oak" in his bodybuilding days, "Arnie" during his acting career, and "The Governator" (a portmanteau of "Governor" and "The Terminator", one of his best-known movie roles) since the start of his political career.[5]
 
As a Republican, he was first elected on October 7, 2003, in a special recall election to replace then-Governor Gray Davis. Schwarzenegger was sworn in on November 17, 2003, to serve the remainder of Davis's term. Schwarzenegger was then re-elected on November 7, 2006, in California's 2006 gubernatorial election, to serve a full term as governor, defeating Democrat Phil Angelides, who was California State Treasurer at the time. Schwarzenegger was sworn in for his second term on January 5, 2007.[6] In 2011, Schwarzenegger completed his second term as governor, and it was announced that he had separated from Maria Shriver, his wife for the previous 25 years; she is a member of the influential Kennedy family, as a niece of the late Democratic U.S. President John F. Kennedy.
 
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Bibliography
 
See also
 
References
 
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Tags
American politicians of the 20th century
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Chris Brown
For other people named Chris Brown, see Chris Brown (disambiguation).
Chris Brown
Chris Brown 5, 2012.jpg
Brown performing at Supafest Australia, April 2012
Background information
Birth name Christopher Maurice Brown
Born May 5, 1989 (age 26)
Tappahannock, Virginia, U.S.
Genres
R&B hip hop pop dance
Occupation(s)
Singer songwriter rapper dancer actor
Years active 2005–present
Labels
CBE Jive RCA
Associated acts
Lil Wayne Tyga Rihanna Nicki Minaj Sevyn Streeter Pitbull Usher Drake Big Sean Timothy Bloom Kid Ink
Website chrisbrownworld.com
Christopher Maurice "Chris" Brown (born May 5, 1989) is an American recording artist, dancer and actor. Born in Tappahannock, Virginia, he taught himself to sing and dance at a young age and was involved in his church choir and several local talent shows. Having signed with Jive Records in 2004, Brown released his self-titled debut studio album the following year. It peaked at number two on the US Billboard 200 and was later certified double platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). With his first single "Run It!" peaking atop the US Billboard Hot 100, Brown became the first male artist as a lead since Diddy in 1997 to have his debut single top the chart. His second album Exclusive (2007) spawned his second Hot 100 number one "Kiss Kiss", in addition to "With You" and "Forever". The album was also certified double platinum by the RIAA.
 
In 2009, Brown received much media attention after pleading guilty to felony assault of his then-girlfriend, singer Rihanna; he was sentenced to five years of probation and six months of community service.[1] His third album Graffiti was released later that year, and included the top-twenty single "I Can Transform Ya". Brown's fourth album F.A.M.E. (2011) became his first to top the Billboard 200; it spawned hit singles "Yeah 3x", "Look at Me Now", and "Beautiful People". F.A.M.E. earned Brown his first Grammy Award for Best R&B Album at the 54th Grammy Awards.[2] His fifth album Fortune was released in 2012. However, after the release of Exclusive, Brown's albums have not been well received by music critics, with the exception of X, which received a normalized rating of 63.[3]
 
Apart from his work in the music industry, Brown has pursued an acting career. In 2007, he made his on-screen feature film debut in Stomp the Yard, and appeared as a guest on the television series The O.C.. Other films Brown has appeared in, include This Christmas (2007), Takers (2010), Think Like a Man (2012), and Battle of the Year (2013). Throughout his career, Brown has won numerous awards, including two NAACP Image Awards, three American Music Awards and fourtheen BET Awards.
 
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Nicki Minaj
Nicki Minaj
Nicki Minaj de gala en las BET Awards 2013.png
Minaj attending the 2013 BET Awards
Background information
Birth name Onika Tanya Maraj
Born December 8, 1982 (age 32)
Saint James, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
Origin South Jamaica, Queens, New York City, New York, U.S.
Genres
Hip hop R&B pop
Occupation(s)
Rapper singer songwriter
Instruments Vocals
Years active 2004–present
Labels
Young Money Cash Money Republic
Associated acts
Chris Brown David Guetta Lil Wayne Drake Kanye West Meek Mill
Website mypinkfriday.com
Onika Tanya Maraj (born December 8, 1982),[1][2][3] better known by her stage name Nicki Minaj (/mɪˈnɑːʒ/), is a Trinidadian-born American[1][4] rapper, singer, songwriter and actress. Born in Saint James, Trinidad and Tobago and raised in South Jamaica, Queens, New York, Minaj earned public attention after releasing three mixtapes between 2007–2009. She signed a recording contract with Young Money Entertainment in 2009.
 
Minaj's debut studio album, Pink Friday (2010), peaked at number one on the U.S. Billboard 200 and spawned the top-three single "Super Bass". During that time, Minaj became the first female solo artist to have seven singles simultaneously charting on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100. Her second studio album, Pink Friday: Roman Reloaded (2012), also topped the chart and its lead single, "Starships", peaked at number five on the Billboard Hot 100. Minaj's third studio album, The Pinkprint (2014), was preceded by its second single, "Anaconda", which peaked at number two on the Hot 100 and is her highest-charting single in the United States to date. Minaj made her film debut in the 2012 animated film Ice Age: Continental Drift, and also had a supporting role in the 2014 film The Other Woman. In 2013, she was a main judge on the twelfth season of American Idol.
 
Minaj was the first female artist included on MTV's Annual Hottest MC List, with The New York Times's editor Brent Staples saying that some consider her "the most influential female rapper of all time".[5] Her rapping is distinctive for its fast flow and the use of alter egos and accents, primarily British cockney. Minaj is known for her colorful costumes and wigs. In April 2013, Minaj became the most-charted female rapper in the history of the Billboard Hot 100. Minaj has endorsed Adidas, MAC Cosmetics and Pepsi. She has won four American Music Awards, eight BET Awards, two MTV Video Music Awards, two MTV Europe Music Award, five Billboard Music Awards and Billboard‍‍ '​‍s Women in Music 2011 Rising Star award.
 
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Drake (rapper)
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Drake
Photograph of Drake
Drake performing at Ottawa Bluesfest in 2010
Background information
Birth name Aubrey Drake Graham
Born October 24, 1986 (age 28)
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Genres
Hip hop R&B
Occupation(s)
Rapper singer songwriter record producer actor
Years active 2001–present
Labels
Universal Motown Young Money Cash Money Republic OVO Sound
Associated acts
Lil Wayne Birdman 2 Chainz Nicki Minaj Eminem Noah "40" Shebib Rihanna Kanye West The Weeknd Chris Brown
Website drakeofficial.com
Aubrey Drake Graham (born October 24, 1986),[1] who records under the mononym Drake, is a Canadian rapper, singer, songwriter, and actor. He was born in Toronto, Ontario.[2] He first garnered recognition for his role as Jimmy Brooks on the television series Degrassi: The Next Generation. He later rose to prominence as a rapper, releasing several mixtapes like Room for Improvement before signing to Lil Wayne's Young Money Entertainment in June 2009.[3]
 
Drake's EP, So Far Gone (2009), spawned the hit single "Best I Ever Had" and the moderate hit "Successful". His first studio album, Thank Me Later (2010), debuted at number one on the Billboard 200[4] and generated notable singles, "Over" and "Find Your Love". It was certified Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). His second album, Take Care (2011), is his most successful to date, topping charts in the United States and Canada and producing multiple hit singles, including "Headlines", "Take Care", "Make Me Proud", and "The Motto", the last of which is also credited for popularizing the widely used acronym YOLO. In promotion of Take Care, Drake embarked on the worldwide Club Paradise Tour, which became the most successful hip-hop tour of 2012, grossing over $42 million.[5] His third studio album Nothing Was the Same was released on September 24, 2013. It was supported by the singles "Started from the Bottom", "Hold On, We're Going Home", "All Me" and "The Language".
 
Drake has sold over 5 million albums worldwide.[6] His work has earned him a Grammy Award, three Juno Awards, six BET Awards, and set several significant Billboard records. With twelve number-one singles, Drake has more than any other artist on Billboard's Hot Rap Songs chart. With ten number-one singles, he also has more than any other rapper on Billboard‍ '​s Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart, passing Jay-Z in August 2012.[7] He is one of two artists (the other being 50 Cent) that has simultaneously occupied the chart's top three positions.
 
Drake, along with being a record producer under the pseudonym Champagne Papi, has also written songs for other artists, including Alicia Keys ("Un-Thinkable (I'm Ready)"), Rita Ora ("R.I.P."), Jamie Foxx and Trey Songz. He featured as a voice actor in Ice Age: Continental Drift as the mammoth Ethan.[8] Drake was tied with Rihanna for the most nominations at the 2012 MTV Video Music Awards.[9] He was ranked No. 2 on MTV's Hottest MCs in the Game VII list in 2012.[10] Drake became the #1 Rhythmic artist of 2012 based on Mediabase.[11]
 
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Toronto Raptors
 
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Lil Wayne
Lil Wayne
Lil Wayne in Concert.jpg
Lil Wayne performing in March 2011
Born Dwayne Michael Carter, Jr.
September 27, 1982 (age 32)
New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
Other names
Shrimp Daddy[1][2][3] Baby D[1]
Occupation
Rapper singer songwriter record executive
Years active 1996–present
Home town Hollygrove, New Orleans
Spouse(s) Antonia Wright (m. 2004; div. 2006)
Children 4
Awards List of awards and nominations
Musical career
Genres Hip hop
Instruments Vocals
Labels
Young Money Cash Money Republic
Associated acts
The B.G.'z Cash Money Millionaires Hot Boys Squad Up 2 Chainz DJ Drama DJ Khaled Drake Juelz Santana Nicki Minaj Rick Ross Robin Thicke T.I. T-Pain The Game Young Jeezy
Website www.youngmoney.com
Dwayne Michael Carter, Jr. (born September 27, 1982),[4] known by his stage name Lil Wayne, is an American rapper from New Orleans, Louisiana. In 1991, at the age of nine, Lil Wayne joined Cash Money Records as the youngest member of the label, and half of the duo The B.G.'z, alongside fellow New Orleans-based rapper Lil' Doogie. In 1996, Lil Wayne formed the southern hip hop group Hot Boys, with his Cash Money label-mates Juvenile, Young Turk and Lil' Doogie (who now goes by B.G.). Hot Boys debuted with Get It How U Live!, that same year. Most of the group's success came with their platinum-selling album Guerrilla Warfare (1999) and the 1999 single "Bling Bling". Along with being the flagship artist of Cash Money Records, Lil Wayne is also the chief executive officer (CEO) of his own label imprint, Young Money Entertainment, which he founded in 2005.
 
Lil Wayne's solo debut album Tha Block Is Hot (1999), was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). His subsequent albums, Lights Out (2000) and 500 Degreez (2002), went on to be certified gold. Wayne reached higher popularity with his fourth album Tha Carter (2004), which was led by the single "Go D.J." and his appearance on Destiny's Child's Top 10 single "Soldier", that same year. The album was followed by Tha Carter II (2005), as well as several mixtapes and collaborations throughout 2006 and 2007. Wayne gained more prominence with his sixth album Tha Carter III (2008), which became his most successful album to date, with first-week sales of over one million copies in the United States. The album won the Grammy Award for Best Rap Album and includes the hit singles "Lollipop", "A Milli" and "Got Money".
 
Following the success of Tha Carter III, Wayne decided to record a rock-esque album titled Rebirth. The album, released in 2010, was certified gold by the RIAA, despite a generally negative critical response. In March 2010, Lil Wayne began serving an 8-month jail sentence in New York after being convicted of criminal possession of a weapon stemming from an incident in July 2007. Wayne's eighth album I Am Not a Human Being (2010), was released during his incarceration. His 2011 album and first following his release, Tha Carter IV, sold 964,000 copies in its first week of availability in the United States. It includes the singles "6 Foot 7 Foot", "How to Love" and "She Will".[5] On September 27, 2012, Lil Wayne passed Elvis Presley as the male with the most entries on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, with 109 songs. Lil Wayne's eleventh studio album, Tha Carter V has been delayed multiple times and has no scheduled release date.
 
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Tyga
Tyga
TygaTyga.jpg
Tyga in October 2010
Background information
Birth name Michael Ray Nguyen-Stevenson
Also known as T-Raww
Born November 19, 1989 (age 25)
Compton, California, U.S.
Origin Gardena, California, U.S.
Genres Hip hop
Occupation(s) Rapper
Years active 2007–present
Labels
Last Kings Young Money Cash Money Republic Decaydance
Associated acts
YG Kid Ink Schoolboy Q Kanye West Chris Brown Jess Jackson Birdman DJ Mustard Nicki Minaj Lil Wayne The Game Kevin McCall Rick Ross Travie McCoy Young Thug
Website tygasworld.com
Michael Ray Nguyen-Stevenson (born November 19, 1989), known by his stage name Tyga (a backronym for Thank You God Always),[1] is an American rapper from Gardena, California. In 2011, Tyga signed a recording contract with Young Money Entertainment, Cash Money Records and Republic Records (formerly Universal Republic Records). He first received recognition with his debut single "Coconut Juice", featuring Travie McCoy. His major label debut Careless World: Rise of the Last King, includes the singles "Rack City", "Faded" featuring fellow Young Money artist Lil Wayne, "Far Away" featuring Chris Richardson, "Still Got It" featuring Drake, and "Make It Nasty". He released his third album Hotel California, on April 9, 2013, and includes the singles "Dope" featuring Rick Ross, "For The Road" featuring Chris Brown, and "Show You" featuring Future. His fourth studio album The Gold Album: 18th Dynasty, was released June 23, 2015, after several delays.
 
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Adolf Hitler
"Hitler" redirects here. For other uses, see Hitler (disambiguation).
Adolf Hitler
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S33882, Adolf Hitler retouched.jpg
Hitler in 1938
Führer of Germany
In office
2 August 1934 – 30 April 1945
Deputy
Rudolf Hess (1933–41)
Position vacant
Preceded by Paul von Hindenburg
(as President)
Succeeded by Karl Dönitz
(as President)
Reich Chancellor of Germany
In office
30 January 1933 – 30 April 1945
President Paul von Hindenburg (until 1934)
Deputy
Franz von Papen (1933–34)
Position vacant
Preceded by Kurt von Schleicher
Succeeded by Joseph Goebbels
Leader of the Nazi Party
In office
29 June 1921 – 30 April 1945
Deputy Rudolf Hess
Preceded by Anton Drexler
Succeeded by Martin Bormann
Personal details
Born 20 April 1889
Braunau am Inn, Austria-Hungary
Died 30 April 1945 (aged 56)
Berlin, Germany
Nationality
Austrian citizen until 7 April 1925[1]
German citizen after 25 February 1932
Political party National Socialist German Workers' Party (1921–45)
Other political
affiliations German Workers' Party (1920–21)
Spouse(s) Eva Braun
(29–30 April 1945)
Parents
Alois Hitler (father)
Klara Pölzl (mother)
Occupation Politician
Religion See: Religious views of Adolf Hitler
Signature
Military service
Allegiance German Empire
Service/branch Bavarian Army
Years of service 1914–20
Rank
Gefreiter
Verbindungsmann
Unit
16th Bavarian Reserve Regiment
Reichswehr intelligence
Battles/wars World War I
Awards
Iron Cross First Class
Iron Cross Second Class
Wound Badge
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP); National Socialist German Workers Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. As effective dictator of Nazi Germany, Hitler was at the centre of World War II in Europe and the Holocaust.
 
Hitler was a decorated veteran of World War I. He joined the precursor of the NSDAP, the German Workers' Party, in 1919 and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923 he attempted a coup in Munich to seize power. The failed coup resulted in Hitler's imprisonment, during which time he wrote his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf ("My Struggle"). After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-Semitism, and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda. Hitler frequently denounced international capitalism and communism as being part of a Jewish conspiracy.
 
Hitler's Nazi Party became the largest elected party in the German Reichstag, leading to his appointment as chancellor in 1933. Following fresh elections won by his coalition, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act, which began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into the Third Reich, a single-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain and France. His first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the denunciation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, and the annexation of territories that were home to millions of ethnic Germans—actions which gave him significant popular support.
 
Hitler sought Lebensraum ("living space") for the German people. His aggressive foreign policy is considered to be the primary cause of the outbreak of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and on 1 September 1939 invaded Poland, resulting in British and French declarations of war on Germany. In June 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941 German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europe and North Africa. Failure to defeat the Soviets and the entry of the United States into the war forced Germany onto the defensive and it suffered a series of escalating defeats. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, Hitler married his long-time lover, Eva Braun. On 30 April 1945, less than two days later, the two committed suicide to avoid capture by the Red Army, and their corpses were burned.
 
Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology, the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5 million Jews and millions of other victims whom he and his followers deemed Untermenschen ("sub-humans") and socially undesirable. Hitler and the Nazi regime were also responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 29 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European Theatre of World War II. The number of civilians killed during the Second World War was unprecedented in warfare, and constitutes the deadliest conflict in human history.
 
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Nazi Party
This article is about the German Nazi Party that existed from 1920–1945. For the ideology, see Nazism. For other Nazi Parties, see Nazi Party (disambiguation).
National Socialist German Workers' Party
Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei
Emblem of the National Socialist German Workers' Party
Party Chairman Anton Drexler (1920–1921)
Adolf Hitler (1921–1945)
Martin Bormann (1945)
Founder Anton Drexler
Slogan "Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer" (unofficial)
Founded February 24, 1920
Dissolved 1945
Preceded by German Workers' Party
Headquarters Munich, Germany[1]
Newspaper Völkischer Beobachter
Student wing National Socialist German Students' League
Youth wing
Hitler Youth
 
Deutsches Jungvolk
League of German Girls
Paramilitary wings Sturmabteilung
Schutzstaffel
Sports organization Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen
Women's organization National Socialist Women's League
Membership Fewer than 60 (1920)
8.5 million (1945)[2]
Ideology National Socialism
Antisemitism
Pan-Germanism
Political position Far-right[3][4]
Colors Black, White, Red[5]
Brown (customary)
Party flag
Parteiflagge
Politics of Germany
Political parties
Elections
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (German: About this sound Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei , abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party (/ˈnɑːtsi/), was a political party in Germany active between 1920 and 1945 that practised Nazism. Its predecessor, the German Workers' Party (DAP), existed from 1919 to 1920.
 
The party emerged from the German nationalist, racist and populist Freikorps paramilitary culture, which fought against the communist uprisings in post-World War I Germany.[6] The party was created as a means to draw workers away from communism and into völkisch nationalism.[7] Initially, Nazi political strategy focused on anti-big business, anti-bourgeois, and anti-capitalist rhetoric, although such aspects were later downplayed in order to gain the support of industrial entities, and in the 1930s the party's focus shifted to anti-Semitic and anti-Marxist themes.[8]
 
Racism was central to Nazism. The Nazis propagated the idea of a "people's community" (Volksgemeinschaft) with the aim of uniting "racially desirable" Germans as national comrades, whilst excluding those deemed either to be political dissidents, physically or intellectually inferior, or of a foreign race (Fremdvölkische).[9] The Nazis sought to improve the stock of the Germanic people through racial purity and eugenics, broad social welfare programs, and a disregard for the value of individual life, which could be sacrificed for the good of the Nazi state and the "Aryan master race". To maintain the supposed purity and strength of the Aryan race, the Nazis sought to exterminate Jews, Romani, and the physically and mentally handicapped. They imposed exclusionary segregation on homosexuals, Africans, Jehovah's Witnesses, and political opponents.[10] The persecution reached its climax when the party-controlled German state organized the systematic murder of approximately six million Jews and five million people from the other targeted groups, in what has become known as the Holocaust.
 
The party's leader since 1921, Adolf Hitler, was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul von Hindenburg in 1933. Hitler rapidly established a totalitarian regime[11][12][13][14] known as the Third Reich. Following the defeat of the Third Reich at the conclusion of World War II in Europe, the party was "declared to be illegal" by the Allied powers,[15] who performed denazification in the years after the war.
 
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