Anarkisme: Perbedaan revisi

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'''Anarkisme''' atau dieja '''anarkhisme''' adalah filsafat politik yang menganjurkan masyarakat tanpa negara atau sering didefinisikan sebagai lembaga sukarela yang mengatur diri sendiri.<ref>"ANARCHISM, a social philosophy that rejects authoritarian government and maintains that voluntary institutions are best suited to express man's natural social tendencies." George Woodcock. "Anarchism" at The Encyclopedia of Philosophy</ref><ref>"In a society developed on these lines, the voluntary associations which already now begin to cover all the fields of human activity would take a still greater extension so as to substitute themselves for the state in all its functions." [ Peter Kropotkin. "Anarchism" from the Encyclopædia Britannica]</ref><ref>"Anarchism." The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2005. p. 14 "Anarchism is the view that a society without the state, or government, is both possible and desirable."</ref><ref>Sheehan, Sean. Anarchism, London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2004. p. 85</ref> Tapi beberapa penulis telah mendefinisikan sebagai lembaga yang lebih spesifik berdasarkan asosiasi bebas non-hirarkis.<ref>"as many anarchists have stressed, it is not government as such that they find objectionable, but the hierarchical forms of government associated with the nation state." Judith Suissa. ''Anarchism and Education: a Philosophical Perspective''. Routledge. New York. 2006. p. 7</ref><ref name=""/><ref>"That is why Anarchy, when it works to destroy authority in all its aspects, when it demands the abrogation of laws and the abolition of the mechanism that serves to impose them, when it refuses all hierarchical organisation and preaches free agreement — at the same time strives to maintain and enlarge the precious kernel of social customs without which no human or animal society can exist." [[Peter Kropotkin]]. [ Anarchism: its philosophy and ideal]</ref><ref>"anarchists are opposed to irrational (e.g., illegitimate) authority, in other words, hierarchy — hierarchy being the institutionalisation of authority within a society." [ "B.1 Why are anarchists against authority and hierarchy?"] in [[An Anarchist FAQ]]</ref> Anarkisme memegang bahwa negara menjadi tidak diinginkan, tidak perlu, atau berbahaya.<ref name="definition">
'''Anarkisme''' atau dieja '''anarkhisme''' yaitu suatu paham yang mempercayai bahwa segala bentuk [[negara]], [[pemerintah]]an, dengan kekuasaannya adalah lembaga-lembaga yang menumbuhsuburkan penindasan terhadap kehidupan, oleh karena itu [[negara]], pemerintahan, beserta perangkatnya harus dihilangkan/dihancurkan.
{{cite journal |last=Malatesta|first=Errico|title=Towards Anarchism|journal=MAN!|publisher=International Group of San Francisco|location=Los Angeles|oclc=3930443|url=|archiveurl=|archivedate=7 November 2012 |deadurl=no|authorlink=Errico Malatesta |ref=harv}}
{{cite journal |url=
|archiveurl= |archivedate=16 May 2007 |deadurl=yes |title=Working for The Man |journal=[[The Globe and Mail]] |accessdate=14 April 2008 |last=Agrell |first=Siri |date=14 May 2007 |ref=harv }}
{{cite web |url=|title=Anarchism|year=2006|work=Encyclopædia Britannica|publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service|accessdate=29 August 2006| archiveurl=| archivedate= 14 December 2006<!--Added by DASHBot-->}}
{{cite journal |year=2005|title=Anarchism|journal=The Shorter [[Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy]]|page=14|quote=Anarchism is the view that a society without the state, or government, is both possible and desirable. |ref=harv}}
The following sources cite anarchism as a political philosophy:
{{cite book | last = Mclaughlin | first = Paul | title = Anarchism and Authority | publisher = Ashgate | location = Aldershot | year = 2007 | isbn = 978-0754661962 |page=59}}
{{cite book | last = Johnston | first = R. | title = The Dictionary of Human Geography | publisher = Blackwell Publishers | location = Cambridge | year = 2000 | isbn = 0-631-20561-6 |page=24}}</ref><ref name=slevin>Slevin, Carl. "Anarchism." ''The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics''. Ed. Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan. Oxford University Press, 2003.</ref>
Sementara anti-statisme adalah pusat dari pemikiran ini,<ref>"Anarchists do reject the state, as we will see. But to claim that this central aspect of anarchism is definitive is to sell anarchism short."[ ''Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism'' by Paul McLaughlin. AshGate. 2007. p. 28]</ref> anarkisme juga menentang otoritas atau organisasi hierarkis dalam pelaksanaan hubungannya dengan manusia, sehingga tidak terbatas pada sistem negara saja.<ref name="">{{cite web |url= |title=IAF principles |publisher=[[International of Anarchist Federations]] |archiveurl= |archivedate=5 January 2012 |deadurl=yes |quote=The IAF – IFA fights for : the abolition of all forms of authority whether economical, political, social, religious, cultural or sexual.}}</ref><ref>"My use of the word hierarchy in the subtitle of this work is meant to be provocative. There is a strong theoretical need to contrast hierarchy with the more widespread use of the words class and State; careless use of these terms can produce a dangerous simplification of social reality. To use the words hierarchy, class, and State interchangeably, as many social theorists do, is insidious and obscurantist. This practice, in the name of a "classless" or "libertarian" society, could easily conceal the existence of hierarchical relationships and a hierarchical sensibility, both of which-even in the absence of economic exploitation or political coercion-would serve to perpetuate unfreedom." [[Murray Bookchin]]. ''The Ecology of Freedom: the emergence and dissolution of Hierarchy. CHESHIRE BOOKS
Palo Alto. 1982. Pg. 3''</ref><ref>"Authority is defined in terms of the right to exercise social control (as explored in the "sociology of power") and the correlative duty to obey (as explored in the "philosophy of practical reason"). Anarchism is distinguished, philosophically, by its scepticism towards such moral relations – by its questioning of the claims made for such normative power – and, practically, by its challenge to those "authoritative" powers which cannot justify their claims and which are therefore deemed illegitimate or without moral foundation."[ ''Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism'' by Paul McLaughlin. AshGate. 2007. p. 1]</ref><ref>"Anarchism, then, really stands for the liberation of the human mind from the dominion of religion; the liberation of the human body from the dominion of property; liberation from the shackles and restraint of government. Anarchism stands for a social order based on the free grouping of individuals for the purpose of producing real social wealth; an order that will guarantee to every human being free access to the earth and full enjoyment of the necessities of life, according to individual desires, tastes, and inclinations." [[Emma Goldman]]. "What it Really Stands for Anarchy" in ''[[Anarchism and Other Essays]]''.</ref><ref>Individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker defined anarchism as opposition to authority as follows "They found that they must turn either to the right or to the left, – follow either the path of Authority or the path of Liberty. Marx went one way; Warren and Proudhon the other. Thus were born State Socialism and Anarchism&nbsp;... Authority, takes many shapes, but, broadly speaking, her enemies divide themselves into three classes: first, those who abhor her both as a means and as an end of progress, opposing her openly, avowedly, sincerely, consistently, universally; second, those who profess to believe in her as a means of progress, but who accept her only so far as they think she will subserve their own selfish interests, denying her and her blessings to the rest of the world; third, those who distrust her as a means of progress, believing in her only as an end to be obtained by first trampling upon, violating, and outraging her. These three phases of opposition to Liberty are met in almost every sphere of thought and human activity. representatives of the first are seen in the Catholic Church and the Russian autocracy; of the second, in the Protestant Church and the Manchester school of politics and political economy; of the third, in the atheism of Gambetta and the socialism of Karl Marx." [[Benjamin Tucker]]. [ ''Individual Liberty.'']</ref><ref name="Ward 1966">{{cite web |url=|last=Ward|first=Colin|year=1966|title=Anarchism as a Theory of Organization|accessdate=1 March 2010| archiveurl=| archivedate= 25 March 2010<!--Added by DASHBot-->}}</ref><ref>Anarchist historian [[George Woodcock]] report of [[Mikhail Bakunin]]'s anti-authoritarianism and shows opposition to both state and non-state forms of authority as follows: "All anarchists deny authority; many of them fight against it." (p. 9)&nbsp;... Bakunin did not convert the League's central committee to his full program, but he did persuade them to accept a remarkably radical recommendation to the Berne Congress of September 1868, demanding economic equality and implicitly attacking authority in both Church and State."</ref><ref>{{cite book |last=Brown |first=L. Susan |chapter=Anarchism as a Political Philosophy of Existential Individualism: Implications for Feminism |title=The Politics of Individualism: Liberalism, Liberal Feminism and Anarchism |publisher=Black Rose Books Ltd. Publishing |year= 2002 |page=106}}</ref>
Secara spesifik pada sektor [[ekonomi]], [[politik]], dan [[administratif]], Anarki berarti koordinasi dan pengelolaan, tanpa aturan birokrasi yang didefinisikan secara luas sebagai ''pihak yang superior'' dalam wilayah ekonomi, politik dan administratif (baik pada ranah publik maupun privat).