Eropa: Perbedaan revisi

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{{Tabel Eropa}}
[[Berkas:Location of Europe.svg|thumb|350px|Peta dunia yang menunjukkan letak Eropa]]
'''Eropa''' secara [[Geologi|geologisgeologi]]s dan [[Geografi|geografisgeografi]]s adalah sebuah semenanjung atau anak benua (jazirah). Pemisahannya sebagai benua lebih dikarenakan oleh perbedaan budaya. Batasnya di utara adalah [[Samudera Arktik]], di barat adalah [[Samudera Atlantik]], dan di selatan dibatasi oleh [[Laut Tengah]]. Batas timurnya masih belum jelas karena pemisahan benua ini sendiri diawali oleh faktor kebudayaan. Batas yang sering dipakai sebagai batas benua Eropa dan [[Asia]] adalah [[Pegunungan Ural]] dan [[Laut Kaspia]].
Benua ini adalah benua terkecil kedua setelah [[Australia]] dengan luas 10.180.000  km² sedangkan bila dihitung dari populasinya, benua ini terletak di urutan ketiga (di bawah [[Asia]] dan [[Afrika]]) dengan 742,5 juta jiwa pada tahun [[2013]] (seperdelapan penduduk dunia).
== Sejarah ==
{{Europe and Sea}}
Negara-negara merdeka berikut ini mempunyai wilayah kekuasaan di [[Eropa]]:
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<!-- The main natural vegetation cover in Europe is [[forest]]. The conditions for growth are very favourable. In the north, the [[Gulf Stream]] and [[North Atlantic Drift]] warm the continent. Southern Europe could be described as having a warm, but mild climate. There are frequent summer droughts in this region. Mountain ridges also affect the conditions. Some of these ([[Alps]], [[Pyrenees]]) are oriented east-west and allow the wind to carry large masses of water from the ocean in the interior. Others are oriented south-north ([[Scandinavian Mountains]], [[Dinaric Alps|Dinarides]], [[Carpathians]], [[Apennines]]) and because the rain falls primarily on the side of mountains that is oriented towards sea, forests grow well on this side, while on the other side, the conditions are much less favourable. Few corners of mainland Europe have not been grazed by [[livestock]] at some point in time, and the cutting down of the pre-agricultural forest habitat caused disruption to the original plant and animal ecosystems.-->
Delapan puluh sampai sembilan puluh persen Eropa dulunya adalah hutan. Hutan-hutan ini menyebar dari Laut Mediterania sampai [[Samudra Arctic]]. Meskipun begitu hampir separuh hutan awalnya telah menghilang setelah [[kolonisasi]] selama berabad-abad. Sekarang ini Eropa masih memiliki seperempat dari seluruh hutan dunia -- hutandunia—hutan [[spruce]] Skandinavia, hutan [[pine]] yang luas di Russia, [[hutan hujan]] [[chestnut]] Caucasus dan hutan [[oak cork]] di Mediterania. Sekarang ini penebangan hutan telah dihentikan dan banyak pohon-pohon ditanam. Negara dengan hutan terkecil adalah [[Irlandia]] (8%) sedangkan negara dengan hutan terluas adalah Finlandia (72%).
In "mainland" Europe, [[deciduous]] forest prevails. The most important species are [[beech]], [[birch]] and [[oak]]. In the north, where [[taiga]] grows, a very common tree species is the [[birch]] tree. In the Mediterranean, many [[olive]] trees have been planted, which are very well adapted to its arid climate. Another common species in Southern Europe is the [[cypress]]. [[Coniferous]] forests prevail at higher altitudes up to the forest boundary and as one moves north within Russia and Scandinavia, giving way to [[tundra]] as the Arctic is approached. The semi-arid Mediterranean region hosts much scrub forest. A narrow east-west tongue of Eurasian [[grassland]]—the [[steppe]]—extends eastwards from Ukraine and southern Russia and ends in Hungary and traverses into taiga to the north.
Glaciation during the most recent [[ice age]] and the presence of man affected the distribution of European fauna. As for the animals, in many parts of Europe most large animals and top [[predator]] species have been hunted to extinction. The [[woolly mammoth]] and [[aurochs]] were extinct before the end of the [[Neolithic]] period. Today [[wolf|wolves]] ([[carnivore]]s) and [[bears]] ([[omnivore]]s) are endangered. Once they were found in most parts of Europe. However, deforestation caused these animals to withdraw further and further. By the [[Middle Ages]] the [[bears]]' habitats were limited to more or less inaccessible mountains with sufficient forest cover. Today, the brown bear lives primarily in the Balkan peninsula, in the North and in Russia; a small number also persist in other countries across Europe (Austria, Pyrenees etc.), but in these areas brown bear populations are fragmented and marginalised because of the destruction of their habitat. In the far North of Europe, polar bears can also be found. The [[wolf]], the second largest predator in Europe after the brown bear, can be found primarily in [[Eastern Europe]] and in the Balkans.
Other important European carnivores are [[Eurasian lynx]], European [[wild cat]], [[fox]]es (especially the [[red fox]]), [[jackal]] and different species of [[marten]]s, [[hedgehog]]s, different species of snakes ([[viper]]s, [[grass snake]]...), different birds ([[owl]]s, [[hawk]]s and other [[birds of prey]])
Important European [[herbivore]]s are [[snail]]s, [[amphibian]]s, [[fish]], different birds, and [[mammal]]s, like [[rodent]]s, [[deer]]s and [[roe deer]]s, [[boar]]s, and living in the mountains, [[marmot]]s, [[Alpine Ibex|steinbocks]], [[chamois]]es among others.
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