Gambar dari Edessa: Perbedaan revisi

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[[File:Abgarwithimageofedessa10thcentury.jpg|thumb|right|Menurut legenda, Raja [[:en:Abgar V of Edessa|Abgar]] menerima "Gambar dari Edessa", yang memuat gambar wajah [[Yesus]].]]
'''Gambar dari Edessa''' ({{lang-en|Image of Edessa}}) menurut tradisi [[Kristen]] adalah [[relikwi]] kudus yang berupa kain berbentuk bujursangkar atau persegi panjang yang secara ajaib memuat cetakan wajah [[Yesus]]. Merupakan "ikon" ("gambar") pertama. Dalam [[gereja Ortodoks Timur]] dan juga dalam bahasa Inggris, gambar ini dikenal sebagai "''Mandylion''".
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According to the legend, King [[Abgar V|Abgar of Edessa]] wrote to Jesus, asking him to come cure him of an illness. Abgar received a reply letter from Jesus, declining the invitation, but promising a future visit by one of his disciples. This legend was first recorded in the early 4th century by [[Eusebius of Caesarea]],<ref>Eusebius, ''[[Church History (Eusebius)|Historia Ecclesiae]]'' 1.13.5 and .22.</ref> who said that he had transcribed and translated the actual letter in the Syriac chancery documents of the king of Edessa, but who makes no mention of an image.<ref>Steven Runciman, "Some Remarks on the Image of Edessa", ''Cambridge Historical Journal'' '''3'''.3 (1931:238-252), p. 240</ref> Instead, the [[Seventy Disciples|apostle]] "[[Thaddeus of Edessa|Thaddaeus]]" is said to have come to Edessa, bearing the words of Jesus, by the virtues of which the king was miraculously healed.
 
Menurut legenda, ketika Konon [[Yesus]] [[Kristus]] masih hidup, seorang raja bernama [[Abgar V|Abgar]], penguasa [[Edessa]], menderita penyakit kusta yang teramat parah. Mendengar tentang mukjizat Yesus Kristus yang bisa menyembuhkan berbagai macam penyakit, sang raja berkehendak untuk melihat rupa sang [[Juru selamat]]. Raja Abgar mengutus seorang pelukis agar dapat melukis wajah Kristus untuk dirinya. Namun si pelukis tidak dapat menunaikan perintah dari Raja Abgar. Kuas si pelukis tidak dapat menuangkan wajah [[Kristus]] yang bercahaya ke dalam lukisannya. Pada saat itu, setelah membasuh muka, sang [[Juru selamat]] mengusapkan handuk ke wajah-Nya dan di lembaran kain tersebut secara ajaib tergambarlah wajah suciNya. Begitu menerima lukisan ajaib ini, Raja Abgar sembuh total dari penyakitnya. Legenda lain mengatakan bahwa raja Abgar mengirim surat meminta agar [[Yesus]] bersedia datang untuk menyembuhkan, tetapi menerima surat balasan bahwa undangannya ditolak, tetapi [[Yesus]] menjanjikan salah satu murid-Nya akan mengunjunginya kelak. Legenda ini pertama kali dicatat pada abad ke-4 oleh [[Eusebius dari Kaisarea]],<ref>Eusebius, ''[[Church History (Eusebius)|Historia Ecclesiae]]'' 1.13.5 and .22.</ref> yang menulis bahwa ia telah menyalin dan menerjemahkan surat asli dalam dokumen arsip dalam [[bahasa Suryani]] dari raja Edessa, tetapi tidak menyinggung mengenai adanya gambar.<ref>Steven Runciman, "Some Remarks on the Image of Edessa", ''Cambridge Historical Journal'' '''3'''.3 (1931:238-252), p. 240</ref> Dikisahkan bahwa [[Tujuh puluh murid|rasul]] "[[:en:Thaddeus of Edessa|Thaddaeus]]" dikatakan telah datang Edessa, membawa perkataan Yesus, yang secara ajaib menyembuhkan penyakit raja itu.
 
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The report of an image, which accrued to the legendarium of Abgar, first appears in the [[Syriac]] work, the ''[[Doctrine of Addai]]'': according to it, the messenger, here called Ananias, was also a painter, and he painted the portrait, which was brought back to Edessa and conserved in the royal palace.<ref>Runciman 1931, ''loc. cit.''.</ref>
 
The first record of the existence of a physical image in the ancient city of [[Edessa, Mesopotamia|Edessa]] (now [[Urfa]]) was in [[Evagrius Scholasticus]], writing about 593, who reports a portrait of Christ, of divine origin (θεότευκτος), which effected the miraculous aid in the defence of Edessa against the Persians in 544.<ref>Evagrius, in [[Migne]], ''Patrologia Graeca''lxxxvi, 2, cols. 2748f, noted by Runciman 1931, p. 240, note 5; remarking that "the portrait of Christ has entered the class of [[Acheiropoieta|αχειροποίητοι]] icons".</ref> The image was moved to [[Constantinople]] in the 10th century. The cloth disappeared from Constantinople during the [[Sack of Constantinople]] in 1204, during the [[Fourth Crusade]], and by some believed to be reappearing as a relic in King [[Louis IX of France]]'s [[Sainte-Chapelle]] in [[Paris]]. This relic disappeared in the [[French Revolution]].<ref name="artnet1931">Two documentary inventories: year 1534 (Gerard of St. Quentin de l'Isle, Paris) and year 1740. See [http://www.artnet.com/library/05/0537/T053734.asp Grove Dictionary of Art], [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=1474-6913(1931)3%3A3%3C238%3ASROTIO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-6 Steven Runciman, Some Remarks on the Image of Edessa, Cambridge Historical Journal 1931], and [http://www.shroud.com/pdfs/n56part5.pdf Shroud.com] for a list of the group of relics. See also [http://histor.ws/grabtuch/bild/saintchapel.gif an image of the Gothic reliquary dating from the 13th century], in [http://histor.ws/grabtuch/geschichte02.htm Histor.ws].</ref>
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Ikon Suci ini pada awalnya dipasang di gerbang kota, namun tidak berapa lama kemudian ikon ini ditutup dengan genting atas pertimbangan akan maksud jahat orang-orang munafik. Saat pasukan Persia mengepung Edessa, Bunda Maria muncul dalam mimpi Uskup Kota, dan memerintahkan agar Ikon Juru Selamat diarak mengelilingi tembok kota. Dengan ini, pada akhirnya musuh berhasil diusir.
Penguasa Bizantium memindahkan Ikon Suci ini ke ibukota Konstantinopel. Namun saat Konstantinopel diduduki oleh Pasukan Orde Salib, ikon ini tentunya mereka kuasai, dan sampai sekarang tidak diketahui nasibnya.
 
Replika Ikon ini sangat dicintai di Ranah Rusia. Di Moscow, ikon ajaib ini sempat berada di Kremlin, yaitu di “Kathedral Uspenskiy”, kemudian dipindahkan ke biara Novospassky. Ikon ini menunjukkan mukjizatnya saat terjadi kebakaran hebat dan merajalelanya wabah kolera di Moscow. Di zaman modern, Wajah Suci Juru Selamat selalu dicantumkan di panji-panji bendera pasukan Rusia.
The [[provenance]] of the Edessa letter between the 1st century and its location in his own time are not reported by Eusebius. The materials, according to the scholar [[Robert Eisenman]], "are very widespread in the Syriac sources with so many multiple developments and divergences that it is hard to believe they could all be based on Eusebius' poor efforts" (Eisenman 1997:862).
 
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The Eastern Orthodox Church have a feast of this icon on August 16 (August 29 in N.S.), which commemorates its [[Translation (relic)|translation]] from Edessa to Constantinople.
 
==History of the legend==
The story of the Mandylion is the product of centuries of development. The first version is found in [[Eusebius of Caesarea|Eusebius]]' ''History of the Church'' (1.13.5-1.13.22). Eusebius claimed that he had transcribed and translated the actual letter in the Syriac chancery documents of the king of Edessa. This records a letter written by King [[Abgar of Edessa]] to Jesus, asking him to come cure him of an illness. Jesus replies by letter, saying that when he had completed his earthly mission and ascended to heaven, he would send a disciple to heal Abgar (and does so). At this stage, there is no mention of an image of Jesus.
 
The [[provenance]] of the Edessa letter between the 1st century and its location in his own time are not reported by Eusebius. The materials, according to the scholar [[Robert Eisenman]], "are very widespread in the Syriac sources with so many multiple developments and divergences that it is hard to believe they could all be based on Eusebius' poor efforts" (Eisenman 1997:862).
 
In AD 384, [[Egeria (pilgrim)|Egeria]], a pilgrim from either Gaul or Spain, was given a personal tour by the Bishop of Edessa, who gave her many marvellous accounts of miracles that had saved Edessa from the Persians and put into her hands transcripts of the correspondence of Abgarus and Jesus, with embellishments. Part of her accounts of her travels, in letters to her sisterhood, survive. "She naïvely supposed that this version was more complete than the shorter letter which she had read in a translation at home, presumably one brought back to the Far West by an earlier pilgrim" (Palmer 1998). Her escorted tour, accompanied by a translator, was thorough; the bishop is quoted: "Now let us go to the gate where the messenger Ananias came in with the letter of which I have been telling you." (Palmer). There was however, no mention of any image reported by Egeria, who spent three days inspecting every corner of Edessa and the environs.
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