Dur-Sharrukin: Perbedaan antara revisi

133 bita ditambahkan ,  7 tahun yang lalu
tidak ada ringkasan suntingan
Tidak ada ringkasan suntingan
Tidak ada ringkasan suntingan
Sargon II memerintah dari tahun 722 sampai 705 SM. Pada tahun 717 SM (atau 713 SM), Sargon memerintahkan pembangunan kota-istana baru di titik pertemuan [[sungai Tigris]] dan [[:en:Great Zab|Greater Zab]]. Tuntutan kayu dan bahan-bahan bangunan lain serta pekerja bangunan, yang sampai datang dari tempat-tempat jauh di pantai [[Fenisia]], didokumentasikan dalam surat-surat Asyur pada zaman itu. Hutang para pekerja bangunan dihapus supaya menarik jumlah tenaga kerja yang cukup. Tanah di sekitar kota itu dijadikan ladang pertanian, terutama untuk menanam pohon zaitun guna meningkatkan kekurangan produksi minyak di Asyur. Kota besar ini seluruhnya dibangun pada dekade sebelum tahun 706 SM, yaitu tahun dipindahkannya pusat pemerintahan ke Dur-Sharrukin, meskipun kota itu belum sepenuhnya selesai dibangun. Sargon terbunuh dalam pertempuran pada tahun 705 SM. Setelah kematiannya yang mendadak itu putra dan sekaligus penerusnya, [[Sanherib]], meninggalkan proyek itu dan memindahkan ibukota dan administrasinya ke kota [[Niniwe]], 20 km ke arah selatan. Kota itu tidak pernah diselesaikan dan akhirnya ditinggalkan seabad kemudian ketika kekaisaran Asyur runtuh.
<ref>Marc Van De Mieroop, ''A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000 - 323&nbsp;BC'', (Wiley-Blackwell) 2006, ISBN 1-4051-4911-6</ref>
[[File:Victor Place Khorsabad.jpg|left|thumb|Plan ofDenah Dur-Sharrukin, 1867]]
 
== Ciri-ciri ==
[[File:Victor Place Khorsabad.jpg|left|thumb|Plan of Dur-Sharrukin, 1867]]
[[File:S03 06 01 017 image 2340.jpg|thumbnail|Khorsabad brick, Assyria. Babylonian; Louvre Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection]]
Kota itu berbentuk persegi panjang dan berukuran 1758,6 x 1635&nbsp;meter, melingkupi daerah seluas 3 km persegi atau 288&nbsp;hektar. Panjang seluruh tembok kota adalah 16280 unit Asyur, yang sesuai dengan nilai huruf-huruf nama "Sargon". Tembok kota dibangun kuat dengan 157 menara untuk melindungi sisi-sisinya. Tujuh gerbang kota dibuat dari segala arah. Suatu teras bertembok memuat kuil dan istana. Kuil utama dipersembahkan kepada dewa-dewa [[Nabu]], [[Shamash]] dan [[:en:Sin (mythology)|Sin]], sementara [[Adad]], [[Ningal]] dan [[Ninurta]] mempuyai kuil-kuil yang lebih kecil. Sebuah menara kuil, [[ziqqurat]], juga dibangun. Istana itu dihiasi dengan patung-patung dan ukiran-ukiran tembok. Gerbang-gerbangnya diapit oleh patung-patung banteng bersayap ''[[shedu]]'' dengan berat mencapai 40&nbsp;ton. Sargon rupanya kehilangan satu dari banteng bersayap itu di dalam sungai.
 
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InSelain additionkota toyang the great citybesar, thereada waspula ataman royalberburu huntingkerajaan parkdan andkebun ayang garden that includedditumbuhi "allsemua thetumbuhan aromaticberaroma plantsdi ofdaerah Hatti<ref>''Hatti'': indalam thiskonteks context,ini alladalah theseluruh areasdaerah todi thesebelah westbarat ofsungai theEfrat Euphratesyang controlleddikuasai byoleh kerajaan-kerajaan [[Neo-Hittite]] kingdoms.</ref> and thedan fruitpohon-treespohon ofbuah everydari mountainsetiap gunung", asuatu "recordcatatan ofkekuasaan powerdan and conquestpenaklukan", assebagaimana diamati oleh [[Robin Lane Fox]] has observed.<ref>D.D. Luckenbill, ''Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia'', vol II:242, quoted in Robin Lane Fox, ''Travelling Heroes in the Epic Age of Homer'' 2008, pp26f.</ref> SurvivingSurat-menyurat correspondenceyang mentionsterlestarikan themenyebut movingpemindahan ofribuan thousandspohon of young fruitbuah treesmuda, [[quince]]s, [[almond]]s, [[appleapel]]s anddan [[medlar]]s.<ref>Lane Fox 2008:27; textsteks are inpada Luckenbill 1927:II.</ref><!--
<blockquote>"On the central canal of Sargon's garden stood a pillared pleasure-pavilion which looked up to a great topographic creation: a man-made Garden Mound. This Mound was planted with [[Cedrus|cedars]] and [[cypress]]es and was modelled after a foreign landscape, the [[Nur Mountains|Amanus mountains]] in north Syria, which had so amazed the Assyrian kings. In their flat palace-gardens they built a replica of what they had encountered."<ref>Lane Fox 2008:27, noting D. Stronach, "The Garden as a political statement: some case-studies from the Near East in the first millennium BC", ''Bulletin of the Asia Institute'' '''4''' (1990:171-80). The garden mount first documented at Dur-Sharrukin was to have a long career in the [[history of gardening]].</ref></blockquote>
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[[File:Palace of Khorsabad.png|thumb|Istana Dur-Sharrukin]]
Dur-Sharrukin berbentuk hampir [[bujursangkar]] dengan batas tembok kota setebal 24&nbsp;meter berlandasan batu yang ditembus oleh tujuh gerbang masif. Sebuah gundukan di bagian timur laut menandai lokasi istana [[Sargon II]]. Pada waktu dibangun, desa di situs itu dinamai Maganuba.<ref>Cultraro M., Gabellone F., Scardozzi G, Integrated Methodologies and Technologies for the Reconstructive Study of Dur-Sharrukin (Iraq), XXI International CIPA Symposium, 2007</ref>
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The site was first noticed by the French Consul General at [[Mosul]], [[Paul-Émile Botta]] in 1842. Botta believed, however, that Khorsabad was the site of biblical [[Nineveh]]. The site was excavated by Botta in 1842-44, joined in the later stages by artist [[Eugène Flandin]].<ref>Paul Emile Botta and Eugene Flandin, Monument de Ninive, in 5 volumes, Imprimerie nationale, 1946-50</ref><ref>E. Guralnick, New drawings of Khorsabad sculptures by Paul Émile Botta, Revue d'assyriologie et d'archéologie orientale, vol. 95, pp. 23-56, 2002</ref> Victor Place resumed the excavations from 1852 to 1855.<ref>Victor Place, Nineve et l'Assyie, in 3 volumes, Imprimerie impériale, 1867–1879</ref><ref>Joseph Bonomi, Ninevah and Its Palaces: The Discoveries of Botta and Layard, Applied to the Elucidation of Holy Writ, Bohn, 1957 (2003 Reprint, Gorgias Press LLC, ISBN 1-59333-067-7)</ref>
 
TheSitus siteini waspertama firstkali noticedditemukan by theoleh FrenchKonsul ConsulJenderal GeneralPerancis atdi [[Mosul]], [[Paul-Émile Botta]] inpada tahun 1842. Namun, Botta believed, however,percaya thatbahwa Khorsabad wasadalah thesitus site of biblicalkota [[NinevehNiniwe]]. TheSitus siteini wasdiekskavasi excavated byoleh Botta inpada tahun 1842-44, joinedditemani inkemudian the later stages byoleh artistseniman [[Eugène Flandin]].<ref>Paul Emile Botta and Eugene Flandin, Monument de Ninive, in 5 volumes, Imprimerie nationale, 1946-50</ref><ref>E. Guralnick, New drawings of Khorsabad sculptures by Paul Émile Botta, Revue d'assyriologie et d'archéologie orientale, vol. 95, pp. 23-56, 2002</ref> Victor Place resumedmelanjutkan theekskavasi excavationsdari fromtahun 1852 tosampai 1855.<ref>Victor Place, Nineve et l'Assyie, in 3 volumes, Imprimerie impériale, 1867–1879</ref><ref>Joseph Bonomi, Ninevah and Its Palaces: The Discoveries of Botta and Layard, Applied to the Elucidation of Holy Writ, Bohn, 1957 (2003 Reprint, Gorgias Press LLC, ISBN 1-59333-067-7)</ref>
A significant number of the items recovered by the French at Dur-Sharrukin were lost in two river shipping incidents. In 1853, Place attempted to move two 30-ton statues and other material to Paris from Khorsabad on a large boat and four rafts. All of the vessels except two of the rafts were scuttled by pirates. In 1855, Place and Jules Oppert attempted to transport the remaining finds from Dur-Sharrukin, as well as material from other sites being worked by the French, mainly [[Nimrud]]. Almost all of the collection, over 200 crates, was lost in the river.<ref>Robert William Rogers, A history of Babylonia and Assyria: Volume 1, Abingdon Press, 1915</ref> Surviving artifacts from this excavation were taken to the [[Louvre]] in [[Paris]].
 
Sejumlah barang-barang yang diketemukan oleh orang Perancis di Dur-Sharrukin hilang dalam dua kali kecelakaan pengiriman barang melalui sungai. Pada tahun 1853, Place berupaya memindahkan dua patung yang masing-masing beratnya 30 ton dan barang-barang lain ke Paris dari Khorsabad dengan satu kapal besar dan empat rakit. Semua perahu kecuali dua rakit dirampok oleh pembajak. Pada tahun 1855, Place dan Jules Oppert berupaya memindahkan penemuan sisanya dari Dur-Sharrukin, juga barang-barang dari situs lain yang dikerjakan oleh orang Perancis, terutama [[Nimrud]]. Hampir semua koleksi, lebih dari 200 peti kemas, hilang di sungai.<ref>Robert William Rogers, A history of Babylonia and Assyria: Volume 1, Abingdon Press, 1915</ref> Artefak-artefak yang dapat diselamatkan dari ekskavasi ini dibawa ke Museum [[Louvre]] di [[Paris]].
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The site of Khorsabad was excavated 1928–1935 by American archaeologists from the [[Oriental Institute, Chicago|Oriental Institute]] in [[Chicago]]. Work in the first season was led by [[Edward Chiera]] and concentrated on the palace area. A colossal bull estimated to weigh 40&nbsp;tons was uncovered outside the throne room. It was found split into three large fragments. The torso alone weighed about 20&nbsp;tons. This was shipped to Chicago. The preparation and shipment of the bull back to the Oriental Institute was incredibly arduous. The remaining seasons were led by Gordon Loud and Hamilton Darby. Their work examined one of the city gates, continued work at the palace, and excavated extensively at the palace's temple complex.<ref>[http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/oic16.pdf] OIC 16. Tell Asmar, Khafaje and Khorsabad: Second Preliminary Report of the Iraq Expedition, Henri Frankfort, 1933; [http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/oic17.pdf] OIC 17. Iraq Excavations of the Oriental Institute 1932/33: Third Preliminary Report of the Iraq Expedition, Henri Frankfort, 1934; [http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/oip38.pdf] Gordon Loud, Khorsabad, Part 1: Excavations in the Palace and at a City Gate, Oriental Institute Publications 38, University of Chicago Press, 1936; [http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/oip40.pdf] Gordon Loud and Charles B. Altman, Khorsabad, Part 2: The Citadel and the Town, Oriental Institute Publications 40, University of Chicago Press, 1938</ref> Since Dur-Sharrukin was a single-period site that was evacuated in an orderly manner after the death of Sargon II, few individual objects were found. The primary discoveries from Khorsabad shed light on [[Assyrian art]] and [[Assyrian architecture|architecture]].
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