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==History==
The Museum's first collections were assembled by the Manchester Society of Natural History formed in 1821 with the purchase of the collection of [[John Leigh Philips]].<ref name="MMHist">The History of the Manchester Museum, University of Manchester [http://www.museum.manchester.ac.uk/aboutus/history/], accessed 25 November 2007</ref> In 1850 the collections of the Manchester Geological Society were added. By the 1860s both societies encountered financial difficulties and, on the advice of the evolutionary biologist [[Thomas Huxley]], [[Owens College]] (now the University of Manchester) accepted responsibility for the collections in 1867. The museum in Peter Street was sold in 1875 after Owens College moved to new buildings in Oxford Street.<ref>Thompson, Joseph (1886) ''The Owens College: its Foundation and Growth''. Manchester: J. E. Cornish; pp.&nbsp;282–86</ref>
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[[File:Manchester Museum by Nick Higham.jpg|thumbnail|FormerBekas mainpintu entrancemasuk ofutama Manchester Museum.]]
<!--The college commissioned [[Alfred Waterhouse]], architect of London's [[Natural History Museum, London|Natural History Museum]], to design a museum to house the collections for the benefit of students and the public on a site in Oxford Road (then Oxford Street). The Manchester Museum was opened to the public in 1888. At the time, the scientific departments of the college were immediately adjacent, and students entered the galleries from their teaching rooms in the Beyer Building.<ref name="MMHist" /><ref>Charlton, H. B. (1951) ''Portrait of a University''. Manchester: U. P.; chap. V</ref>
 
Two subsequent extensions mirror the development of its collections. The 1912 pavilion was largely funded by [[Jesse Haworth]], a textile merchant, to house the archaeological and Egyptological collections acquired through excavations he had supported. The 1927 extension was built to house the ethnographic collections. The [[Gothic Revival]] street frontage which continues to the [[Whitworth Hall]] has been ingeniously integrated by three generations of the Waterhouse family. When the adjacent [[University Dental Hospital of Manchester]] moved to a new site, its old building was used for teaching and subsequently occupied by the museum.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Hartwell |first1=Clare | authorlink = |author2=Hyde, Matthew, [[Nikolaus Pevsner|Pevsner, Nikolaus]] | title =The Buildings of England: Lancashire: Manchester and the South-East |edition= | publisher =[[Yale University Press]] | year =2004 | location =New Haven | pages =428–429 | url = | doi = | id = | isbn =0-300-10583-5 }}</ref>
 
Ancient Worlds opened in October 2012 and transformed the main galleries of the 1912 building. Discovering Archaeology explores how people make sense of the past using objects and includes exhibits on facial reconstruction and some of the characters who were involved in the development of archaeology and the museum, including [[William Flinders Petrie]] and [[William Boyd Dawkins]]. Egyptian Worlds, takes visitors on a journey through the landscape, customs and practices of the Ancient Egyptians. Exploring Objects, reveals the archaeology collections through '[[visible storage]]' with a difference. The gallery incorporates a [[haptic]] interactive.
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[[file:Stan the Trex at Manchester Museum.jpg|left|thumb|250px|''Stan'', asebuah reproductioncetakan castreproduksi of a fossilisedfosil ''[[Tyrannosaurus rex]]'' acquiredyang bydiperoleh themuseum museumini pada intahun 2004.]]
<!--In June 2013 [[Time-lapse photography|time-lapse]] footage showing a 10 inch Egyptian statue in the museum's collection, apparently spinning around unaided, attracted worldwide media attention.<ref>{{Cite news|author=Sasha Goldstein|url=http://www.nydailynews.com/news/world/egyptian-statue-moves-amazing-video-article-1.1380450#commentpostform|publisher=''[[Daily News (New York)|Daily News]]''|title=Ancient Egyptian statue at Manchester Museum moves on its own, stumped curator says|date=2013-06-23|accessdate=2013-06-25|location=New York}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|author=Dan Kedmey|url=http://newsfeed.time.com/2013/06/25/watch-spinning-statue-at-manchester-museum-mystifies-staff/|publisher=''[[Time (magazine)|Time]]''|title=WATCH: Spinning Statue at Manchester Museum Mystifies Staff|date=2013-06-25|accessdate=2013-06-25|location=New York}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|author=|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-manchester-23030009|publisher=[[BBC News]]|title=Manchester Museum's moving Egyptian statue puzzler|date=2013-06-24|accessdate=2013-06-25|location=London}}</ref> Various theories were put forward, with the university's Professor [[Brian Cox (physicist)|Brian Cox]] suggesting "differential friction" between the glass shelf and the object, possibly caused by vibrations made by visitors, caused the object to move.<ref name="Telegraph">{{Cite news|author=|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newsvideo/weirdnewsvideo/10137556/Mystery-as-museum-statue-starts-turning-in-display-case.html|publisher=''[[The Daily Telegraph]]''|title=Mystery as museum statue starts turning in display case|date=2013-06-23|accessdate=2013-06-25|location=London}}</ref> The museum's Egyptologist Campbell Price, said "it has been on those surfaces since we have had it and it has never moved before. And why would it go around in a perfect circle?".<ref name="Telegraph"/> The ''[[Manchester Evening News]]'' reported that the incident "sent visitor numbers soaring at the Manchester Museum",<ref name="MEN">{{Cite news|author=Richard Wheatstone|url=http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/greater-manchester-news/moving-statue-sets-turnstiles-spinning-4710126|publisher=''[[Manchester Evening News]]''|title='Moving statue' sets the turnstiles spinning as visitors flock to Manchester Museum|date=2013-06-25|accessdate=2013-06-25|location=Manchester}}</ref> and Tim Manley, head of marketing and communications, commented that "There's been a definite spike in visitors".<ref name="MEN"/>
 
Nature's Library opened in April 2013 displaying the museum's range of natural history, using a design inspired by a Gothic library to capitalise on the gallery's [[Gothic Revival]] architecture. Displays explore the variety of the natural world, where the collection came from, why people collect specimens, how they are used, and what they can tell scientists.
 
===Antropologi===
Koleksinya berjumlah sekitar 16.000 artefak, hampir separuhnya dari Afrika.<!-- Material from Oceania makes up a quarter and much of the remainder comes from Asia and the Americas. The first large donation came from Robert Dukinfield Darbishire (1826–1908), beginning in 1904/05. Darbishire gave about 700 items, including ceramics from Peru and Eskimo carvings. In 1922, Charles Heape donated his Oceanian and American collection amounting to about 1500 items. It included a collection of weapons and paddles from the Pacific islands, collected by missionaries and others, though some items from the Aborigines of Victoria were acquired while Heape was resident. The Lloyd collection of Japanese metalwork, carvings and ceramics were the bequest of R. W. Lloyd. There are two collections obtained in the field by professional anthropologists. Frank Willett collected pottery, masks and ritual regalia in Nigeria in 1956 and Peter Worsley collected basketry and other items from the Wanindiljaugwa people of [[Groote Eylandt]], Australia in 1952.--><ref>''The Manchester Museum''. Derby: English Life, 1985; pp.&nbsp;11–13</ref>
 
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===Arkeologi===
[[file:Pepi II Koptos 2.jpg|right|200px|thumb|Relief ofPahatan [[Pepi II]] fromdari the temple ofkuil [[Menes]] anddan [[Isis]] indi [[Qift]], partbagian ofdari the museum'skoleksi Egyptological collectionmuseum Manchester.]]
Area pengumpulan koleksi utama dalam arkeologi adalah Eropa Barat, [[Laut Tengah]], [[Mesir]] dan [[Asia]] Barat.<!-- Large accessions of material from Egypt and Western Asia came from the excavations of Sir [[Flinders Petrie]] and subsequently archaeologists from the university have been involved in expeditions to Western Asia and brought more finds. The Egyptological collections include finds from [[Kahun]] and [[Gurob]], presented in 1890 by [[Jesse Haworth]] and [[Martyn Kennard]]. By 1912 the growth of this area had been so great that a new wing was added for the Egyptian material to which Jesse Haworth made a major donation of funds. The Egyptian Mummy Research Project, begun in 1973, has yielded much information on health and social conditions in ancient Egypt and radiology and endoscopy have been used extensively. A redesign of the galleries in 1984/85 resulted in improved displays.<ref>''The Manchester Museum'' (1985)</ref> The archaeology collections were redisplayed in 2011 in the Ancient Worlds galleries. A [[bog body]], [[Chat Moss#Worsley Man|Worsley Man]], is also in the care of the museum.<ref>{{citation |last=Pain |first=Stephanie |title=The Head from Worsley Moss |journal=New Scientist |issue=2414 |date=23 September 2003 |issn=0262-4079}}</ref> [[Lindow Man]], another bog body had previously been displayed.--><ref>{{citation |url=http://www.britarch.ac.uk/awards/ |title=British Archaeological Awards |publisher=[[Council for British Archaeology]] |date=19 July 2010 |accessdate=2014-02-07}}</ref>
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===Archery===
The nucleus of the archery collection of about 2,000 exhibits was formed by [[Ingo Simon]] and donated in 1946. Simon was an accomplished archer who spent many years researching its history and the development of bows. From 1914 to 1933 he held the world record for a flight-shot at 462&nbsp;yards; he died in 1964 and his widow Erna (lady world champion, 1937, d. 1973) endowed a trust to conserve and develop the collection which includes artefacts from Great Britain, Brazil, Europe, India, Pakistan, Japan, Central Asia, Africa, and the Pacific islands.<ref>''The Manchester Museum''. Derby: English Life, 1985; pp.&nbsp;18–19</ref>
 
===Botany Panahan ===
TheKoleksi nucleusinti ofpanahan theterdiri archerydari collection of aboutsekitar 2,.000 exhibitsbarang waspameran formedyang bydikumpulkan oleh [[Ingo Simon]] anddan donateddisumbangkan inpada tahun 1946. Simon wasadalah anseorang accomplishedpemanah archerulung whoyang spentbertahun-tahun manymeneliti yearssejarah researchingdan itsperkembangan historybusur and the development of bowspanah. <!-- From 1914 to 1933 he held the world record for a flight-shot at 462&nbsp;yards; he died in 1964 and his widow Erna (lady world champion, 1937, d. 1973) endowed a trust to conserve and develop the collection which includes artefacts from Great Britain, Brazil, Europe, India, Pakistan, Japan, Central Asia, Africa, and the Pacific islands.--><ref>''The Manchester Museum''. Derby: English Life, 1985; pp.&nbsp;18–19</ref>
The Manchester Herbarium contains upwards of 950,000 specimens collected during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries and most countries are represented. Accessions are still made and many specialist enquiries are received. Only a small part of the collection is exhibited. Important contributions came from Charles Bailey and James Cosmo Melvill and some specimens from [[Carolus Linnæus]], the expeditions of [[Charles Darwin]] and [[John Franklin|Admiral Sir John Franklin]] are included. The small collection made by [[Leopold Hartley Grindon|Leopold H. Grindon]] which includes many cultivated plants is also important.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.museum.manchester.ac.uk/collection/plants/|title=The Herbarium|last=Manchester Museum|accessdate=2009-10-05}}</ref><ref>''The Manchester Museum''. Derby: English Life, 1985; pp.&nbsp;6–8</ref>
 
===Earth sciencesBotani===
The Manchester Herbarium containsmemuat upwardslebih ofdari 950,.000 specimensspesimen collectedyang duringdikumpulkan theselama 18thabad ke-18, 19thke-19 anddan 20thke-20 centuriesdan andberasal mostdari countries arebanyak representednegara.<!-- Accessions are still made and many specialist enquiries are received. Only a small part of the collection is exhibited. Important contributions came from Charles Bailey and James Cosmo Melvill and some specimens from [[Carolus Linnæus]], the expeditions of [[Charles Darwin]] and [[John Franklin|Admiral Sir John Franklin]] are included. The small collection made by [[Leopold Hartley Grindon|Leopold H. Grindon]] which includes many cultivated plants is also important.--><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.museum.manchester.ac.uk/collection/plants/|title=The Herbarium|last=Manchester Museum|accessdate=2009-10-05}}</ref><ref>''The Manchester Museum''. Derby: English Life, 1985; pp.&nbsp;6–8</ref>
The geological collections are of more than local importance and consist of more than 9,000 mineralogical specimens and several hundred thousand fossils. Approximately one twentieth of the collection is displayed and the remainder in storage but available for study by interested persons. Much of the collecting was done in the second half of the 19th century and among the collections are the David Homfray collection from the Cambrian and Ordovician strata of Wales and the collections of George H. Hickling and D. M. S. Watson from the Silurian of the Dudley district, West Midlands and from the Old Red Sandstone. Other specimens include the fossilised plants of the [[Coal Measures]], the S. S. Buckman collection of [[ammonite]]s, an [[ichthyosaur]] from Whitby and 40,000 mammalian bones from an excavation at [[Creswell Crags]], Derbyshire and the [[David Forbes (mineralogist)|David Forbes]] World Collection of minerals. Since the 1920s there has been a policy of complementary collecting by the museum and the University Department of Geology by which the museum specialises in hard rock petrology.<ref>''The Manchester Museum''. Derby: English Life, 1985; pp.&nbsp;14–15</ref>
The museum's collection of [[zeolite]] group minerals originated from a donation by [[Caroline Birley]] in 1894.<ref>{{cite web |title=Other Major Collectors|url=http://www.museum.manchester.ac.uk/collection/rocksandminerals/|work=Rocks and Minerals|publisher=Manchester Museum|accessdate=26 January 2012}}</ref>
 
===Entomology Geologi ===
TheKoleksi geologicalgeologi collectionsterutama arebernilai ofpenting moresecara thanlokal localdan importanceberisi andlebih consist of more thandari 9,.000 mineralogicalspesimen specimensmineralogi andserta severalbeberapa hundredratus thousandribu fossilsfosil.<!-- Approximately one twentieth of the collection is displayed and the remainder in storage but available for study by interested persons. Much of the collecting was done in the second half of the 19th century and among the collections are the David Homfray collection from the Cambrian and Ordovician strata of Wales and the collections of George H. Hickling and D. M. S. Watson from the Silurian of the Dudley district, West Midlands and from the Old Red Sandstone. Other specimens include the fossilised plants of the [[Coal Measures]], the S. S. Buckman collection of [[ammonite]]s, an [[ichthyosaur]] from Whitby and 40,000 mammalian bones from an excavation at [[Creswell Crags]], Derbyshire and the [[David Forbes (mineralogist)|David Forbes]] World Collection of minerals. Since the 1920s there has been a policy of complementary collecting by the museum and the University Department of Geology by which the museum specialises in hard rock petrology.<ref>''The Manchester Museum''. Derby: English Life, 1985; pp.&nbsp;14–15</ref>
The museum's collection amounts to nearly three million specimens. It has 10,500 type specimens (of 2,300 species) and additions are frequently made to it. [[Coleoptera]] represent about half the total number of specimens. The British collections constitute about 1,250,000 specimens and only a small proportion of the known species are unrepresented. Harry Britten, assistant keeper 1918–1938, had a leading role in the development of the collection. Coleoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera specimens amount to some 1,100,000 in total. Of the [[Euclemensia woodiella|Manchester Moth (''Euclemensia woodiella'')]] captured on [[Kersal Moor]] in 1829, one of only three specimens known to be in existence is here. The remainder of the collection is of foreign origin and W. D. Hincks and John R. Dibb contributed great quantities of specimens, particularly of Coleoptera. Coleoptera number some 900,000 out of an approximate total 1,750,000. The Chrysomedinae-Cassidinae collection of Franz Spaeth is the finest collection in the world of tortoise-beetles.<ref>''The Manchester Museum''. Derby: English Life, 1985; pp.&nbsp;9–10</ref>
The museum's collection of [[zeolite]] group minerals originated from a donation by [[Caroline Birley]] in 1894.--><ref>{{cite web |title=Other Major Collectors|url=http://www.museum.manchester.ac.uk/collection/rocksandminerals/|work=Rocks and Minerals|publisher=Manchester Museum|accessdate=26 January 2012}}</ref>
 
===Numismatic collectionEntomologi===
TheKoleksi museum's collectionini amountsterdiri todari nearlyhampir three3 millionjuta specimensspesimen. It hasTerdapat 10,.500 typejenis specimensspesimen (ofdari 2,.300 speciesspesies) anddan additionsmasih aresering frequently made to itditambah.<!-- [[Coleoptera]] represent about half the total number of specimens. The British collections constitute about 1,250,000 specimens and only a small proportion of the known species are unrepresented. Harry Britten, assistant keeper 1918–1938, had a leading role in the development of the collection. Coleoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera specimens amount to some 1,100,000 in total. Of the [[Euclemensia woodiella|Manchester Moth (''Euclemensia woodiella'')]] captured on [[Kersal Moor]] in 1829, one of only three specimens known to be in existence is here. The remainder of the collection is of foreign origin and W. D. Hincks and John R. Dibb contributed great quantities of specimens, particularly of Coleoptera. Coleoptera number some 900,000 out of an approximate total 1,750,000. The Chrysomedinae-Cassidinae collection of Franz Spaeth is the finest collection in the world of tortoise-beetles.--><ref>''The Manchester Museum''. Derby: English Life, 1985; pp.&nbsp;9–10</ref>
The first coins were donated by the businessman Reuben Spencer in 1895 and the rest of his collection of European coins and commemorative medals in various metals was donated in instalments. Alfred Güterbock deposited, then bequeathed a collection of 380 Greek gold, silver and copper coins together with some Roman coins. In the next forty years four benefactions were made: in 1912 from William Smith Churchill (European coins of the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries); in 1925 William Smith Ogden's collection of antiquities, including Greek and Roman coins; in 1939 Egbert Steinthal, honorary keeper of the coin room, presented his collection of English copper coins; and in 1958 Harold Raby's bequest of Greek and Roman coins. Harold Raby succeeded Steinthal as honorary keeper and they were responsible for work on the arrangement and identification of the coins.<ref>''The Manchester Museum''. Derby: English Life, 1985; pp.&nbsp;16–17</ref>
 
===Mammals Koleksi mata uang ===
TheMata firstuang coinslogam werepertama donateddisumbangkan byoleh the businessmanpedagang Reuben Spencer inpada tahun 1895 anddan thesisa restkoleksinya ofyang hisberupa collectionuang oflogam EuropeanEropa coinsserta andberbagai commemorativemedali medalskenangan indari variousberagam metalsjenis waslogam donateddisumbangkan insecara instalmentsbertahap. <!--Alfred Güterbock deposited, then bequeathed a collection of 380 Greek gold, silver and copper coins together with some Roman coins. In the next forty years four benefactions were made: in 1912 from William Smith Churchill (European coins of the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries); in 1925 William Smith Ogden's collection of antiquities, including Greek and Roman coins; in 1939 Egbert Steinthal, honorary keeper of the coin room, presented his collection of English copper coins; and in 1958 Harold Raby's bequest of Greek and Roman coins. Harold Raby succeeded Steinthal as honorary keeper and they were responsible for work on the arrangement and identification of the coins.--><ref>''The Manchester Museum''. Derby: English Life, 1985; pp.&nbsp;16–17</ref>
The collection includes several thousand mammal specimens. Many mounted specimens are from the original Manchester Natural History Society collection. Mounted mammals include a [[Lowland Gorilla]], an [[Aye Aye]], and a [[Red Panda]] collected by [[Brian Houghton Hodgson]]. Most mammal groups are represented. Mr Potter's cow is a member of the British White breed from the extinct Gisburne herd from the 1830s. The museum holds a number of examples of [[taxidermy]] by [[Rowland Ward]] for Maurice Egerton (Lord Egerton of Tatton Park). The collection includes bones and skulls of a wide range of mammals, covering most major groups. Many of the collections were transferred from the Anatomy Department in the 1980s. The museum holds the bone collection put together by Derek Yalden.
 
===ArcheryMamalia===
TheKoleksi collectionmeliputi includesribuan severalspesimen thousand mammal specimens[[mamalia]].<!-- Many mounted specimens are from the original Manchester Natural History Society collection. Mounted mammals include a [[Lowland Gorilla]], an [[Aye Aye]], and a [[Red Panda]] collected by [[Brian Houghton Hodgson]]. Most mammal groups are represented. Mr Potter's cow is a member of the British White breed from the extinct Gisburne herd from the 1830s. The museum holds a number of examples of [[taxidermy]] by [[Rowland Ward]] for Maurice Egerton (Lord Egerton of Tatton Park). The collection includes bones and skulls of a wide range of mammals, covering most major groups. Many of the collections were transferred from the Anatomy Department in the 1980s. The museum holds the bone collection put together by Derek Yalden.
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=== Burung ===
TheKoleksi collectionmeliputi includes approximatelysekitar 15,.000 birdkulit studyburung skinsberasal fromdari more2.000 thanspesies 2lebih,000 speciesumumnya mostlydari fromtahun 1850-1950.<!-- A collections of birds was transferred from the [[Natural History Museum, London|Natural History Museum]] in 1895, including a [[Warbler Finch]] collected by [[Charles Darwin]] on the Galapagos in 1835. The bird skin collection of [[Henry Eeles Dresser]] acquired in 1895 includes Palaearctic bird species, Bee-eaters and Rollers that formed the basis of Dresser's books. The bird skin collection of approximately 7,500 specimens includes specimens that [[John Gerard Keulemans]] and [[Joseph Wolf]] used to prepare illustrations for 'A History of the Birds of Europe'. Dresser was a member of the [[British Ornithologists' Union]] and the [[Zoological Society of London]]. His collection includes specimens from [[Nikolai Prjevalsky]], [[Robert Swinhoe]], [[Henry Tristram]], [[Alfred Wallace]] and [[Henry Seebohm]]. A collection of birds from the [[Hawaiian Islands]] was received from the [[Royal Society]] in the 1890s including species that are now extinct. The museum holds the collections of [[Thomas Coward]], [[Richard Spiers Standen]] and Robert Coombes who specialised in Eurasian goose species; this collection was acquired in the 1990s. The collection of bones includes many bird skulls. The collection formed by Derek Yalden includes skeletons of thousands of birds that were sexed. The egg collection includes approximately 10,000 sets of eggs.
 
Notable specimens include a male and female [[Huia]], bones of the [[Dodo]], an [[Elephant Bird]] egg, the only known egg of the [[Slender-billed Curlew]], two study skins, a mount and several eggs of the [[Passenger Pigeon]], bones of the [[Great Auk]], a male and female [[Ivory-billed Woodpecker]], three specimens of the [[Paradise Parrot]] and a [[Warbler Finch]] collected by [[Charles Darwin]].<ref>McGhie, HA 2005. Specimens of extinct and endangered birds in the collections of the Manchester Museum, the University of Manchester, UK. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 125: 247-252.</ref>
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