Orang Kurdi: Perbedaan revisi

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|image = {{image array|perrow=5
| image1 = Saladin2.jpg | caption1 = [[Saladin]]
| image2 = Nizamiჩობან Rug Cropაღა.jpgpng | caption2 = [[NizamiSharaf Ganjavi|NizamiKhan Bidlisi]]
| image3 = Al-jazariNizami elephantRug clockCrop.pngjpg | caption3 = [[al-JazariNizami Ganjavi|Nizami]]
| image4 = MalerQazi der Geschichte von Bayâd und Riyâd 002Muhammad.jpg | caption4 = [[ZiryabQazi Muhammad]]
| image5 = ჩობანSaid აღაNurs.pngjpg | caption5 = [[SharafSaid Khan BidlisiNursi]]
| image6 = Qazi MuhammadIhsannuriYashar.jpg | caption6 = [[QaziIhsan MuhammadNuri]]
| image7 = SaidSimko NursSikaki.jpg | caption7 = [[SaidSimko NursiShikak]]
| image8 = IhsannuriYasharMustafa Yamulki.jpg| caption8 = [[IhsanMustafa NuriYamulki]]
| image9 = SimkoHusni Sikakial-Zaiim.jpg | caption9 = [[SimkoHusni Shikakal-Za'im]]
| image10 =Mohamed Pasha Jaff.jpg | caption10 = [[MahwiMohamed Pasha Jaff]]
| image11 = MustafaOstad YamulkiElahi 1.jpg|right | caption11 = [[MustafaOstad YamulkiElahi]]
| image12 = Ostad Elahi 1Mustafa_Barzani.jpg|right | caption12 = [[OstadMustafa ElahiBarzani]]
| image13 = Mustafa_BarzaniJalal Talabani.jpg|right | caption13 = [[MustafaJalal BarzaniTalabani]]
| image14 = MosheBarazaniMesud Barzani.jpg | caption14 = [[MosheMassoud BarazaniBarzani]]
| image15 = JalalMuhsen TalabaniBarazi.jpg | caption15 = [[JalalMuhsen Talabanial-Barazi]]
| image16 = DilsaSaleh Demirbag-StenMuslim.JPGjpg | caption16 = [[DilsaSaleh Demirbag StenMuslim]]
| image17 = Mesud BarzaniZana.jpg | caption17 = [[MassoudLeyla BarzaniZana]]
| image18 = SalehZaro MuslimAgha.jpg (ca. 1923-1939).jpg| caption18 = [[SalehZaro MuslimAga]]
| image19 = Zaro Agha. (ca. 1923-1939)Sanjabi11.jpg| caption19 = [[ZaroKarim AgaSanjabi]]
| image20 = Sanjabi11Suad Husni.jpg| caption20 = [[KarimSoad SanjabiHosny]]
| image21 = SuadDr HusniWidad Akrawi UN BMS2010 DI.jpgpng| caption21 = [[SoadWidad HosnyAkrawi]]
| image22 = SeyidMohammad RizaBagher with his sonsGhalibaf.jpg | caption22 = [[SeyidMohammad Bagher RizaGhalibaf]]
| image23 = DrAhmet Widad Akrawi UN BMS2010 DIKaya.pngjpg| caption23 = [[WidadAhmet AkrawiKaya]]
| image24 = MohammadDilsa Bagher GhalibafDemirbag-Sten.jpgJPG | caption24 = [[MohammadDilsa BagherDemirbag GhalibafSten]]
| image25 = Ahmet KayaBahmanGhobadi.jpgJPG | caption25 = [[AhmetBahman KayaGhobadi]]
| image26 = Leyla zana.jpg| caption26 = [[Leyla Zana]]
| image27 = Azad bonni.jpg | caption27 = [[Azad Bonni]]
| image28 = Shahram Nazeri.jpg | caption28 = [[Shahram Nazeri]]
| image29 = BahmanGhobadi.JPG | caption29 = [[Bahman Ghobadi]]
| image30 = 080603 Derdiyok.jpg | caption30 = [[Eren Derdiyok]]
 
}}
|pop = estimatedPerkiraan '''30'''<ref name=CIA2>CIA - The World Factbook: 14 million in Turkey (18%)[https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tu.html], 4.7–6.2 million in Iraq (15–20%)[https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/iz.html], 7.9 million in Iran(10%)[https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html] (all for 2012), plus several million in Syria, neighboring countries, and the diaspora</ref> tosampai '''38''' millionjuta<ref name=KHRP>''The Kurds: culture and language rights'' (Kerim Yildiz, Georgina Fryer, Kurdish Human Rights Project; 2004): 18% of Turkey, 20% of Iraq, 8% of Iran, 9.6%+ of Syria; plus 1–2 million in neighboring countries and the diaspora</ref><ref name="Mackey">Sandra Mackey , “The reckoning: Iraq and the legacy of Saddam”, W.W. Norton and Company, 2002. Excerpt from pg 350: “As much as 25% of Turkey is Kurdish.”</ref>
|region1 = <div style="font-size:115%">'''Traditional areas of Kurdish settlement'''</div>
|region2 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|TurkeyTurki}}
|pop2 = 11–18.611–15 million <br/>15.7–25%
|ref2 = <ref name=CIA2/><ref name=KHRP/><ref name="Mackey"/><ref name=KONDA>[http://www.radikal.com.tr/Radikal.aspx?aType=RadikalDetayV3&ArticleID=913650&CategoryID=104 Kürtlerin nüfusu 11 milyonda İstanbul"da 2 milyon Kürt yaşıyor – Radikal Dizi]. Radikal.com.tr. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.</ref>
|region3 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|Iran}}
|pop3 = 6.5–7.9 million <br/>7–10%
|ref3 = <ref name=CIA2/><ref name=KHRP/>
|region4 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|IraqIrak}}
|pop4 = 6.2–6.5 million <br/>15–23%
|ref4 = <ref name=CIA2/><ref name=KHRP/>
|region5 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|SyriaSuriah}}
|pop5 = 2.2–3 million <br/>9–15%
|ref5 = <ref name=KHRP/><ref>[https://ojcs.siue.edu/ojs/index.php/ssa/article/view/1818/496 Studying the Kurds in Syria: Challenges and Opportunities | Lowe | Syrian Studies Association Bulletin]. Ojcs.siue.edu. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.</ref><ref>{{cite web |first=John L. |last=Henriques |title=Syria: issues and historical background |publisher= Nova Science Publishers, |url=http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&tbo=1&tbm=bks&q=+Estimates+of+the+number+of+Kurds+in+Syria+vary+widely%2C+but+they+are+believed+to+compose+about+9+percent+of+the+population&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq= }}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.opendemocracy.net/zana-khasraw-gul/where-are-syrian-kurds-heading-amidst-civil-war-in-syria|title=Where are the Syrian Kurds heading amidst the civil war in Syria?|last=Gul|first=Zana Khasraw|date=22 July 2013|publisher=Open Democracy|accessdate=4 November 2013}}</ref>
|ref8 = <ref>{{cite web|title=Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 г. Национальный состав населения Российской Федерации|url=http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus_nac_10.php|work=Demoscope|publisher=Demoscope|accessdate=4 July 2012}}</ref>
|region9 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|Armenia}}
|pop9 = 37,403470
|ref9 = <ref>{{cite web|title=Information from the 2011 Armenian National Census|url=http://www.armstat.am/file/articledoc/sv_03_13a_52099478353.pdf|language=Armenian|work=RepublicStatistics of Armenia|accessdate=727 AugustMay 20132014}}</ref>
|region10 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|Georgia}}
|pop10 = 20,843
|region11 = <div style="line-height:0.75em">&nbsp;</div>
|region11 = <div style="font-size:115%">'''[[Diaspora]]'''</div>
|region12 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|GermanyJerman}}
|pop12 = 750800,000
|ref12 = <ref>{{cite news|title=Camps built in Germany, Austria to win new members for PKK, reports reveal|url=http://www.todayszaman.com/news-289089-camps-built-in-germany-austria-to-win-new-members-for-pkk-reports-reveal.html|accessdate=28 October 2012|newspaper=Zaman|date=9 August 2012}}</ref>
|ref12 = <ref name="coucileu"/>{{dead link|date=January 2014}}
|region13 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|Israel}}
|pop13 = Over 150,000
|ref13 = <ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.i24news.tv/en/news/israel/society/130930-israel-s-kurds-celebrate-annual-festival-in-jerusalem|title=Jewish Kurds from Iraq, Syria attend Jerusalem festival |publisher=I24 News |accessdate=2013-09-11}}</ref>
|region14 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|FrancePrancis}}
|pop14 = 135,000
|ref14 =<ref name="coucileu"/>{{dead link|date=January 2014}}
|region15 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|SwedenSwedia}}
|pop15 = 90,000
|ref15 =<ref name="coucileu"/>{{dead link|date=January 2014}}
|region16 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|NetherlandsBelanda}}
|pop16 = 75,000
|ref16 =<ref name="coucileu"/>{{dead link|date=January 2014}}
|region17 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|SwitzerlandBelgia}}{{dead link|date=January 2014}}
|pop17 = 6560,000
|ref17 = <ref name="coucileu"/>
|region18 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|Belgium}}{{dead link|date=January 2014Inggris}}
|pop18 = 6049,000921
|ref18 =<ref>{{cite web|title=QS211EW - Ethnic group (detailed)|url=http://www.nomisweb.co.uk/census/2011/CT0010/view/2092957703|work=nomis|publisher=Office for National Statistics|accessdate=3 August 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Ethnic Group - Full Detail_QS201NI|url=http://www.ninis2.nisra.gov.uk/Download/Census%202011_Excel/2011/QS201NI.xls|accessdate=4 September 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Scotland's Census 2011 - National Records of Scotland, Language used at home other than English (detailed)|url=http://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/documents/censusresults/release2a/rel2A_Language_detailed_Scotland.pdf|work=Scotland Census|publisher=Scotland Census|accessdate=29 September 2013}}</ref>
|ref18 = <ref name="coucileu"/>
|region19 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|Austria}}{{dead link|date=January 2014Kazakhstan}}
|pop19 = 5541,000431
|ref19 = <ref name="KZ2013">[http://stat.gov.kz/getImg?id=ESTAT074326 Қазақстан Республикасы Статистика агенттігі. ҚАЗАҚСТАННЫҢ ЭТНОДЕМОГРАФИЯЛЫҚ ЖЫЛНАМАЛЫҒЫ] ЭТНОДЕМОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ ЕЖЕГОДНИК КАЗАХСТАНА 2013</ref>
|ref19 = <ref name="coucileu"/>
|region20 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|TurkmenistanDenmark}}
|pop20 = 5030,000
|ref20 = <ref>{{cite news|title=Fakta: Kurdere i Danmark|url=http://jyllands-posten.dk/indland/ECE5105449/fakta-kurdere-i-danmark/|accessdate=24 December 2013|newspaper=Jyllandsposten|date=8 May 2006|language=Danish}}</ref>
|ref20 =<ref name="Vanly"/>
|region21 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|United KingdomYordania}}
|pop21 = 4930,921000
|ref21 = <ref>{{cite web|title=Language and Cultural Shift Among the Kurds of Jordan|url=http://www.linguistics.fi/julkaisut/SKY2010/Al-Khatib_Al-Ali_netti.pdf|accessdate=10 November 2012|author=Mahmoud A. Al-Khatib and Mohammed N. Al-Ali|page=12}}</ref>
|ref21 =<ref>{{cite web|title=QS211EW - Ethnic group (detailed)|url=http://www.nomisweb.co.uk/census/2011/CT0010/view/2092957703|work=nomis|publisher=Office for National Statistics|accessdate=3 August 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Ethnic Group - Full Detail_QS201NI|url=http://www.ninis2.nisra.gov.uk/Download/Census%202011_Excel/2011/QS201NI.xls|accessdate=4 September 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Scotland's Census 2011 - National Records of Scotland, Language used at home other than English (detailed)|url=http://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/documents/censusresults/release2a/rel2A_Language_detailed_Scotland.pdf|work=Scotland Census|publisher=Scotland Census|accessdate=29 September 2013}}</ref>
|region22 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|KazakhstanYunani}}
|pop22 = 3828,325000
|ref22 = <ref>{{cite news|title=Kurds Flee Persecution for 'Sympathetic Shores' of Greece|url=http://www.csmonitor.com/1998/0112/011298.intl.intl.2.html/(page)/2|accessdate=22 December 2013|newspaper=The Christian Science Monitor|date=12 January 1998}}</ref>
|ref22 = <ref>{{cite web|title=Table 4.1.1 Population by individual ethnic groups|url=http://www.eng.stat.kz/publishing/DocLib/2011/%D0%90%D0%9E%20%D0%BD%D0%B0%20%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B3%D0%BB%D0%B8%D0%B9%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%BC.pdf|work=Government of Kazakhstan|publisher=stat.kz|accessdate=28 July 2012}}</ref>
|region23 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|JordanAmerika}}
|pop23 = 3015,000361
|ref23 = <ref>{{cite web|title=Language2006–2010 andAmerican CulturalCommunity ShiftSurvey AmongSelected the Kurds ofPopulation JordanTables|url=http://wwwfactfinder2.linguisticscensus.figov/julkaisutfaces/SKY2010tableservices/Al-Khatib_Al-Ali_nettijsf/pages/productview.pdfxhtml?pid=ACS_10_SF4_B01003&prodType=table|accessdatework=10Government Novemberof 2012the United States of America|authorpublisher=MahmoudGovernment A.of Al-Khatibthe andUnited MohammedStates N.of Al-AliAmerica|pageaccessdate=125 August 2013}}</ref>
|region24 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|GreeceSwitzerland}}
|pop24 = 2614,000669
|ref24 = <ref>{{cite web|title=Population résidante permanente de 15 ans et plus, ayant comme langue principale: kurde, en 2012|url=https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0AvYu3HqlaNeEdGtsd2xJdXp3TVMyZGpMcjZTc183YkE&usp=sharing|work=Statistics of Switzerland|publisher=Statistics of Switzerland|accessdate=28 May 2014}}</ref>
|ref24 = <ref name="diaspora">{{cite web|title=The Kurdish Diaspora|url=http://www.institutkurde.org/en/kurdorama/|publisher=Institut Kurde De Paris|accessdate=23 October 2011}}</ref>
|region25 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|DenmarkKyrgyzstan}}
|pop25 = 2513,000171
|ref25 =<ref>{{cite web|title=4.1. Number of resident population by selected nationality|url=http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/sources/census/2010_phc/Kyrgyzstan/A5-2PopulationAndHousingCensusOfTheKyrgyzRepublicOf2009.pdf|work=Government of Kyrgyzstan|publisher=United Nations|accessdate=9 July 2012}}</ref><ref name=kyrgyzstan2>{{cite web|title=Население Кыргызстана|url=http://212.42.101.100:8088/nacstat/node/12|language=Russian}}</ref>
|ref25 = <ref>{{cite web|first=Ole Stig|last=Andersen|title=Kurdisk|url=http://www.olestig.dk/sprog/kurdisk.html|publisher=olestig.dk|date=11 July 2004|accessdate=6 March 2013}}</ref>
|region26 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|United StatesKanada}}
|pop26 = 1511,361685
|ref26 = <ref>{{cite web|title=2006–20102011 AmericanNational CommunityHousehold Survey: Selected PopulationData Tablestables|url=http://factfinder2www12.censusstatcan.govgc.ca/facesnhs-enm/tableservices2011/jsfdp-pd/pagesdt-td/productviewRp-eng.xhtmlcfm?pidLANG=ACS_10_SF4_B01003E&prodTypeAPATH=table3&DETAIL=0&DIM=0&FL=A&FREE=0&GC=0&GID=0&GK=0&GRP=0&PID=105396&PRID=0&PTYPE=105277&S=0&SHOWALL=0&SUB=0&Temporal=2013&THEME=95&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF|work=GovernmentStatistics of the United States of AmericaCanada|publisher=Government of the United StatesStatistics of AmericaCanada|accessdate=519 AugustJanuary 2013}}</ref>
|region27 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|KyrgyzstanFinlandia}}
|pop27 = 1310,171075
|ref27 = <ref>{{cite web|title=Language according to age and sex by region 1990–2011|url=http://pxweb2.stat.fi/Dialog/varval.asp?ma=030_vaerak_tau_102_en&path=../database/StatFin/vrm/vaerak/&lang=1&multilang=en|work=Statistics Finland|publisher=Statistics Finland|accessdate=19 January 2013}}</ref>
|ref27 =<ref>{{cite web|title=4.1. Number of resident population by selected nationality|url=http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/sources/census/2010_phc/Kyrgyzstan/A5-2PopulationAndHousingCensusOfTheKyrgyzRepublicOf2009.pdf|work=Government of Kyrgyzstan|publisher=United Nations|accessdate=9 July 2012}}</ref><ref name=kyrgyzstan2>{{cite web|title=Население Кыргызстана|url=http://212.42.101.100:8088/nacstat/node/12|language=Russian}}</ref>
|region28 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|CanadaAustralia}}
|pop28 = 116,685991
|ref28= <ref>{{cite web|title=The People of Australia - Statistics from the 2011 census|url=http://www.omi.wa.gov.au/resources/publications/LocalGovernment/The_People_of_Australia.pdf|publisher=SBS|accessdate=29 May 2014}}</ref>
|ref28 = <ref>{{cite web|title=2011 National Household Survey: Data tables|url=http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/dp-pd/dt-td/Rp-eng.cfm?LANG=E&APATH=3&DETAIL=0&DIM=0&FL=A&FREE=0&GC=0&GID=0&GK=0&GRP=0&PID=105396&PRID=0&PTYPE=105277&S=0&SHOWALL=0&SUB=0&Temporal=2013&THEME=95&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF|work=Statistics of Canada|publisher=Statistics of Canada|accessdate=19 January 2013}}</ref>
|region29 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|FinlandTurkmenistan}}
|pop29 = 9,2806.097
|ref29 =<ref>{{cite web|title=Итоги всеобщей переписи населения Туркменистана по национальному составу в 1995 году.|url=http://asgabat.net/turkmenistan/itogi-vseobschei-perepisi-naselenija-turkmenistana-po-nacionalnomu-sostavu-v-1995-godu.html|work=asgabat.net|publisher=asgabat.net|accessdate=31 July 2012|language=Russian}}</ref>
|ref29 = <ref>{{cite web|title=Language according to age and sex by region 1990–2011|url=http://pxweb2.stat.fi/Dialog/varval.asp?ma=030_vaerak_tau_102_en&path=../database/StatFin/vrm/vaerak/&lang=1&multilang=en|work=Statistics Finland|publisher=Statistics Finland|accessdate=19 January 2013}}</ref>
|region30 = {{spaces|2}}{{flagcountry|Austria}}
|languages =[[Kurdish languages|Kurdish]] and [[Zaza–Gorani languages|Zazaki–Gorani]]<br/>{{smaller|''In their different forms: [[Sorani]], [[Kurmanji]], [[Fayli]], [[Southern Kurdish]], [[Laki language|Laki]], [[Zazaki language|Zazaki]], [[Bajelani language|Bajalani]], [[Gorani language|Gorani]]''}}
|pop30 = 2,133
|religions = Mostly [[Islam]] (predominately [[Sunni]], but also [[Shia]] and [[Sufism]]) with minorities of [[Atheism]], [[Agnosticism]], [[Yazdânism]], [[Zoroastrianism]], [[Christianity]] and [[Judaism]]
|ref30 = <ref>{{cite web|title=Tabelle 14: Bevölkerung nach Umgangssprache, Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland|url=ftp://www.statistik.at/pub/neuerscheinungen/vzaustriaweb.pdf|work=Statistics of Austria|publisher=Statistics of Austria|accessdate=27 April 2013|page=75|language=German}}</ref>
|related = other [[Iranian peoples]]
|languages =[[Bahasa Kurdi|Kurdish]] dan [[Zaza–Gorani languages|Zazaki–Gorani]]<br/>{{smaller|''Dalam bentuk yang berbeda: [[Sorani]], [[Kurmanji]], [[Fayli]], [[Southern Kurdish]], [[Laki language|Laki]], [[Zazaki language|Zazaki]], [[Bajelani language|Bajalani]], [[Gorani language|Gorani]]''}}
|footnotes = All population numbers are estimates by 3rd parties.
|religions = Kebanyakan [[Islam]] (didominasi [[Sunni]], tetapi juga ada [[Syiah]] dan [[Sufisme]]) dengan minoritas [[Atheis]], [[Agnostik]], [[Yazdânism]], [[Zoroastrianisme]], [[Kristen]] dan [[Yahudi]]
Turkey, Iran and Syria do not track or provide population statistics.
|related = lainnya [[Bangsa Iran]]
|footnotes = Semua jumlah penduduk merupakan perkiraan oleh pihak ke-3.
Turki, Iran dan Suriah tidak melacak atau menyediakan statistik populasi.
|}}
[[Berkas:Kurdish-inhabited area by CIA (1992).jpg|thumb|300px|Daerah yang menggunakan bahasa Kurdi (warna terang)]]
 
'''Kurdi''' ({{lang-ku|کورد, Kurd}}) adalah sebuah kelompok [[etnis]] di [[Timur Tengah]], yang sebagian besar menghuni di suatu daerah yang kemudian dikenal sebagai Kurdistan, meliputi bagian yang berdekatan dari [[Iran]], [[Irak]], [[Suriah]], dan [[Turki]].
'''Orang Kurdi atau Suku Kurdi''' adalah [[kelompok suku]] yang bermukim dan hidup di [[Kurdistan]], yaitu wilayah pegunungan di Asia Barat yang termasuk bagian dari [[Turki]], [[Iran]], [[Irak]], [[Suriah]], dan [[Armenia]]. Hal ini dihuni oleh sekitar 8 juta orang Kurdi, sebelumnya mereka adalah penggembala nomaden tapi sekarang sebagian besar mereka menetap sebagai petani. Mayoritas adalah [[Muslim]] [[Sunni]]. Untuk generasi Kurdi telah berusaha [[otonomi]] dari negara-negara di mana mereka tinggal. Pemberontakan dari Turki Kurdi setelah [[Perang Dunia I]] yang sangat ditindas. Turki saat ini menekan setiap [[manifestasi]] nasionalisme Kurdi. [[Irak]] telah lama menolak tuntutan Kurdi untuk mendirikan pemerintahan sendiri. Tahun [[1960]]-an dan [[1970]]-an terjadi pertempuran sengit antara pasukan Irak dan Kurdi. Selama [[perang Iran-Irak]], Kurdi Irak malah memihak kepada [[Iran]]. Ketika perang berakhir, Irak melepaskan serangan dengan menghancurkan wilayah Kurdi, menggunakan [[gas]] beracun. Ribuan orang Kurdi terbunuh, banyak orang yang selamat mengungsi di [[Turki]].
Di Irak tahun [[1980]]-an dan [[1990]]-an melihat banyak perang antara Kurdi dan Irak atas isu Kurdi yang ingin mendirikan pemerintahan sendiri.
 
Mereka adalah orang-orang Iran dan berbicara dalam [[bahasa Kurdi]], yang merupakan anggota [[bahasa Iran]] cabang dari [[Rumpun bahasa Indo-Eropa|Indo-Eropa]].[31] Jumlah orang Kurdi sekitar 30 juta, dengan mayoritas tinggal di [[Asia Barat]], dengan masyarakat diaspora Kurdi yang signifikan berada di kota-kota barat [[Turki]], di [[Armenia]], [[Georgia]], [[Israel]], [[Azerbaijan]], [[Rusia]], [[Lebanon]], dan, dalam beberapa dekade terakhir ada di beberapa negara [[Eropa]] dan [[Amerika Serikat]].
Bangsa Kurdi telah hidup di [[pegunungan]], kira-kira dalam regional seluas 74.000 mil persegi, yang dikenal sebagai kawasan [[Kurdistan]] selama lebih dari dua abad. Sepanjang sejarah, mereka selalu hidup di bawah kuasa berbagai penakluk ataupun bangsa lain. Semenjak awal abad 20, regional tersebut terbagi ke dalam empat negara: Turki, Suriah, Iran dan Irak, di mana seluruh negara tersebut memperlakukan bangsa Kurdi sebagai warga kelas bawah atau bahkan sering juga bukan sebagai warga negara mereka sendiri. Dengan demikian, bangsa Kurdi, yang berjumlah sekitar 20–25 jiwa, adalah kelompok etnis terbesar di atas muka bumi yang tak memiliki tempatnya sendiri.
 
Orang-orang Kurdi merupakan mayoritas di wilayah otonomi [[Kurdistan Irak]] dan kelompok minoritas yang signifikan di negara-negara tetangga seperti Turki, Suriah dan Iran, di mana gerakan-gerakan nasionalis Kurdi terus memburu otonomi (lebih besar).
==Mengenal Bangsa Kurdi==
 
Dengan demikian, bangsa Kurdi, yang berjumlah sekitar 30–38 juta jiwa, adalah kelompok etnis terbesar yang tak memiliki wilayah negara.
===Sebutan Kurdi===
 
==Etimologi==
Catatan paling awal mengenai istilah Kurdi ditemukan dalam dokumen Raja [[Tiglath-Pileser I]] yang memerintah [[Assyria]] dari 1114 hingga 1076 SM. Disebutkan bahwa daerah “Qurti” di [[gunung Azu]] termasuk salah satu wilayah yang berhasil ditaklukkan oleh sang raja. Bagi orang Akkadian, sebutan “Kurti” digunakan untuk menunjuk mereka yang tinggal di kawasan [[pegunungan Zagros]] dan [[Taurus Timur]], sedangkan orang [[Babylonia]] menyebut mereka “Guti” dan “Kardu”. Sumber [[Yahudi]], Talmud, beberapa kali menyebut tentang bangsa “Qarduim”.
Asal-usul yang tepat dari nama "Kurdi" masih tidak jelas,<ref>G. Asatrian, Prolegomena to the Study of the Kurds, Iran and the Caucasus, Vol.13, pp. 1–58, 2009: "Generally, the etymons and primary meanings of tribal names or ethnonyms, as well as place names, are often irrecoverable; Kurd is also an obscurity"</ref> meskipun diyakini bahwa istilah ini mendahului pembentukan kelompok etnis selama berabad-abad atau bahkan ribuan tahun.
 
G.S. Reynolds percaya bahwa istilah Kurdi kemungkinan besar terkait dengan istilah kuno ''Qardu''. Akar umum Kurdi dan Qardu pertama kali disebutkan dalam tablet [[bahasa Sumeria|Sumeria]] dari milenium ketiga SM sebagai "tanah Kar-da."<ref>G. S. Reynolds, ''A Reflection on Two Qurʾānic Words (Iblīs and Jūdī), with Attention to the Theories of A. Mingana'', Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 124, No. 4 (October –December , 2004), pp. 675–689. (see p.683, 684 & 687)</ref> Demikian pula, Hennerbichler percaya istilah Kurdi dan label etnis yang sama telah berasal dari kata batang Sumeria "kur", yang berarti gunung.<ref>F. Hennenrbichler. (2012). The Origin of Kurds. ''Advances in Anthropology'', 2.2: pp. 64-79.</ref>
Sementara itu, dalam catatan ekspedisinya pada tahun 401 SM, [[Xenopho]]n menceritakan pertemuannya dengan orang-orang “Kardykhoi”. Ini diikuti oleh [[Polybius]] (130 SM) yang menyebut mereka “Kyrtioi”, dan [[Strabo]] (40 M) yang me-latin-kannya menjadi “Cyrtii”.
 
Kata Kurdi pertama kali ditulis di sumber-sumber dengan bentuk Kurt (kwrt-) dalam risalah [[Persia Tengah]] (Karnamak Ardashir Papakan dan Matadakan i Hazar Dastan), digunakan untuk menggambarkan kelompok sosial atau suku yang ada sebelum perkembangan modern bangsa etnis.<ref>G. Asatrian, Prolegomena to the Study of the Kurds, Iran and the Caucasus, Vol.13, pp. 1–58, 2009. Excerpt 1: ""Generally, the etymons and primary meanings of tribal names or ethnonyms, as well as place names, are often irrecoverable; Kurd is also an obscurity"
Menurut Profesor Izady, setidaknya sejak kurun pertama Masehi, istilah “Kurd” mulai umum dipakai untuk menyebut siapa saja yang mendiami wilayah pegunungan dari [[Hormuz]] hingga ke [[Anatolia]]. Adapun sejarawan Islam seperti ath-Thabari, al-Ya‘qubi, al-Mas‘udi dan Yaqut, mengakui keberadaan etnis Kurdi sama seperti etnis lainnya ([[Arab]], [[Persia]], Turki, dan sebagainya).
 
" Excerpt 2: "It is clear that kurt in all the contexts has a distinct social sense, “nomad, tent-dweller”.It could equally be an attribute for any Iranian ethnic group having similar characteristics. To look for a particular ethnic sense here would be a futile exercise." pg 24: "The Pahlavi materials clearly show that kurd in pre-Islamic Iran was a social label, still a long way off from becoming an ethnonym or a term denoting a distinct group of people."</ref> Istilah ini diadopsi oleh penulis Arab dari era Islam awal dan secara bertahap menjadi terkait yang merujuk pada sebuah penggabungan dari suku-suku nomaden Iran dan orang-orang yang menjadi Iran serta kelompok-kelompok di wilayah tersebut.<ref>[http://www.brillonline.nl/subscriber/entry?entry=islam_COM-0544 Bois, Th.; Minorsky, V.; Bois, Th.; Bois, Th.; MacKenzie, D.N.; Bois, Th. "Kurds, Kurdistan." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2009. Brill Online] Excerpt 1:"The Kurds, an Iranian people of the Near East, live at the junction of more or less laicised Turkey" "We thus find that about the period of the Arab conquest a single ethnic term Kurd (plur. Akra-d ) was beginning to be applied to an amalgamation of Iranian or iranicised tribes."</ref><ref name="McDowall, David 2000. p9">McDowall, David. 2000. A modern history of the Kurds. London: I.B. Tauris. p9</ref><ref>G. Asatrian, Prolegomena to the Study of the Kurds, Iran and the Caucasus, Vol.13, pp. 1–58, 2009</ref> [[Sherefxan Bidlisi]] menyatakan bahwa ada empat pembagian etnis Kurdi: [[Kurmanji]], [[Lur]], [[Kalhor]] dan [[Guran]], yang masing-masing berbicara dengan dialek atau bahasa dengan variasi yang berbeda. Dari jumlah tersebut, menurut Ludwig Paul, hanya Kurmanji dan mungkin Kalhuri yang sesuai dengan bahasa Kurdi, sementara dari Luri dan Gurani adalah dengan bahasa yang berbeda. Meskipun demikian, Ludwig menulis bahwa linguistik tidak memberikan definisi ketika bahasa menjadi dialek, dan dengan demikian, faktor-faktor non-linguistik berkontribusi pada kesatuan etnis dari beberapa kelompok yang menuturkan, yaitu Kurmanji, Kalhur, dan Guran.<ref>[http://www.iranica.com/newsite/index.isc?Article=http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/unicode/ot_grp14/ot_kurdlang_i_20081215.html Ludwig Paul, "HISTORY OF THE KURDISH LANGUAGE" in Encyclopedia Iranica] "Linguistics itself, or dialectology, does not provide any general or straightforward definition of at which point a language becomes a dialect (or vice versa). To attain a fuller understanding of the difficulties and questions that are raised by the issue of the “Kurdish language,” it is therefore necessary to consider also non-linguistic factors."</ref>
===Struktur Geografis Bangsa Kurdi===
 
==Geografis==
Karakter geografis Kurdistan yang terdiri dari gugusan perbukitan, struktur sosial yang sangat sarat sentimen tribalisme, serta sistem mata pencarian yang mengandalkan pertanian dan menggembala memang membuat bangsa dan wilayah Kurdistan menjadi semieksklusif sepanjang sejarahnya selama sekitar 3.000 tahun.
 
Nasib bangsa Kurdi di Turki juga tidak lebih baik. Mayoritas suku Kurdi memang tinggal di Turki bagian tenggara dan lebih setengahnya hidup berbaur di ibukota Ankara. Sebagai keturunan bangsa Persia, suku Kurdi menjadi salah satu hambatan gerakan nasionalisme dan sekularisme Turki. Meskipun mereka berhasil mendirikan Negara Darurat Kurdistan di wilayah Turki pada tahun 1922-1924 dan Republik Mahabad Kurdistan tahun 1946 tetapi dapat dihancurkan oleh militer Turki. Dampaknya sejak tahun 1924 Turki melarang penggunaan bahasa Kurdi di tempat umum. Operasi militer besar-besaran terus dilakukan untuk menumpas gerakan pro kemerdeaan yang mengakibatkan ribuan jiwa kehilangan nyawa.
 
==Gallery==
<gallery>
File:Kurdish man on horseback 1974.jpg|Kurdish man on horseback.
File:Sê heval.JPG|Tiga anak Kurdi dari [[Bismil|Bismil Province]], Turki.
File:Kurdish girl in traditional clothes.jpg| Perempuan Kurdi dalam pakaian tradisional.
File:PeshmergaZarok.jpg|Portrait of a Kurdish Peshmerga fighter holding his daughter in their village outside of Dohuk, Iraq
File:Bêrîtanî-2.jpg|Kurdish boy from Beritan tribe
File:Antoin Sevruguin 30 Kurdish girls.jpg|Perempuan Kurdi dari Iran, ca. 1840 - 1933.
File:Kurdish-girl-1900.jpg| Kurdish girl, 1900
File:Irani Soldiers Aid Iraqi Kurds.jpg|Iranian soldiers aided refugee Iraqi Kurds were protest Saddam Hossien and his government during [[Iran-Iraq War]]
File:Guard at Citadel - Erbil - Iraq.jpg| Laki-laki Kurdi dari [[Arbil]]
File:Zarokên Dengizî.jpg|Kurdish children from [[Serenli]] village, [[Savur|Savur district]], Turkey.
File:Gabashvili. Kurdish cavalryman.jpg|Portrait of a Kurdish cavalryman by [[Gigo Gabashvili]], 1936.
File:Zoro Mettini. Ĵinê 1970.jpg|A Kurdish woman, by Zoro Mettini.
File:Kurdish Smugglers Iraq.jpg|Iraqi Kurdish smugglers near the border of Iraq
File:Mercier. Kurde (Asie). Auguste Wahlen. Moeurs, usages et costumes de tous les peuples du monde. 1843.jpg|Mercier. Kurde (Asie) by Auguste Wahlen, 1843
</gallery>
 
==Catatan Rujukandan referensi==
{{reflistReflist|2}}
 
== Pranala luar ==
{{commons category}}
* [http://www.encislam.brill.nl/data/EncIslam/C4/COM-0544.html Kurds and Kurdistan], Encyclopaedia of Islam.
* [http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9275335 Kurds], Encyclopædia Britannica.
* [http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9046466 Kurd], Encyclopædia Britannica.
* [http://www.britannica.com/worldsapart/3_timeline_print.html The Kurds: People without a country], Encyclopædia Britannica.
* [http://www.institutkurde.org/ The Kurdish Institute of Paris] Kurdish language, history, books and latest news articles.
* [http://www.kurdistanica.com/ The Encyclopaedia of Kurdistan]
* [http://www.enstituyakurdi.org/index.php?newlang=english Istanbul Kurdish Institute]
* [http://www.pen-kurd.org/index-en.html The Kurdish Center of International Pen]
* [http://www.kurdishlibrary.org Kurdish Library], supported by the [[Sweden|Swedish]] Government.
* [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0SBL/is_1-2_19/ai_n15954362/pg_2 Yazidism: Historical Roots], International Journal of Kurdish Studies, January 2005.
* [http://www.jafi.org.il/education/actual/iraq/4.html/ Ethnic Cleansing and the Kurds]
* [http://www.transoxiana.org/0109/aloian-kurds_ottoman_hungary.html The Kurds in the Ottoman Hungary] by Zurab Aloian
* [http://theotheriraq.com/ "The Other Iraq" Kurdish Information Website]
 
;Tentang Kurdi di Turki
* {{en}} [http://www.encislam.brill.nl/data/EncIslam/C4/COM-0544.html Kurds and Kurdistan, Encyclopaedia of Islam.]
* [http://www.db.idpproject.org/Sites/idpSurvey.nsf/wCountries/Turkey A report on the Kurdish IDP's – 2005]
* {{en}} [http://0-www.search.eb.com.library.uor.edu/eb/article-9046466?query=Kurd&ct=eb Kurds, Encyclopeadia Britannica.]
* [http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,1564,1484632,00.html A German newspaper's take on the Kurdish issue – 2005]
* {{en}} [http://www.institutkurde.org/ The Kurdish Institute of Paris] Kurdish language, history, books and latest news articles.
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/The_Kurds/Story/0,,428351,00.html The Guardian – ''What's in a name? Too much in Turkey'' – 2001]
* {{en}} [http://www.kurdistanica.com/ The Encyclopaedia of Kurdistan]
* {{cite journal | last = McKiernan | first = Kevin | title = Turkey's war on the Kurds | volume = 55 | issue = 2 | pages = 26–37 | publisher = [http://thebulletin.org ''Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists''] | date = March–April 1999 | url = http://thebulletin.metapress.com/content/wg3804452810m184/?p=ee9133a6962b49f093b163254a36d80c&pi=7 | doi = 10.2968/055002008 | accessdate = 2009-08-04 | journal = Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists}}
* {{en}} [http://www.enstituyakurdi.org/index.php?newlang=english Istanbul Kurdish Institute]
* {{en}} [http://www.pen-kurd.org/index-en.html The Kurdish Center of International Pen]
* {{en}} [http://www.kurdishlibrary.org Kurdish Library]
* {{en}} [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0SBL/is_1-2_19/ai_n15954362/pg_2 Yazidism: Historical Roots, International Journal of Kurdish Studies, Jan. 2005.]
* {{en}} [http://www.jafi.org.il/education/actual/iraq/4.html/ Ethnic Cleansing and the Kurds]
* {{en}} [http://www.transoxiana.org/0109/aloian-kurds_ottoman_hungary.html The Kurds in the Ottoman Hungary by Zurab Aloian]
 
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