Lusitania: Perbedaan revisi

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Peneliti Lambrino membela pendapat bahwa bangsa Lusitania adalah sebuah kelompok suku yang berasal dari suku Kelt yang terkait dengan bangsa [[Lusones]] (sebuah suku bangsa yang menghuni wilayah timur dari [[jazirah Iberia|Iberia]]). Kemungkinan, kedua suku itu berasal dari pegunungan Swiss. Tetapi sebagian lagi berpendapat bahwa bangsa Lusitania adalah sebuah suku bangsa asli Iberia, yang terbentuk karena perkawinan campuran antara berbagai suku.
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The first area colonized by the Lusitani was probably the [[Douro]] valley and the region of [[Beira Alta]] (present day [[Portugal]]); in [[Beira, Portugal|Beira]] they stayed until they defeated the [[Celts]] and other tribes, then they expanded to cover a territory that reached [[Estremadura]] before the arrival of the [[Roman Republic|Roman]]s.
 
Wilayah pertama yang dikoloni oleh bangsa Lusitani kemungkinan adalah lembah [[Douro]] dan wilayah [[Beira Alta]] (sekarang [[Portugal]]); di [[Beira, Portugal|Beira]] mereka menetap hingga mereka mengalahkan bangsa [[Kelt]] dan suku-suku lainnya, lalu mereka memperluas wilayah mereka hingga mencakup daerah [[Estremadura]] sebelum kedatangan [[Republik Romawi|orang-orang Romawi]].
== War against Rome==
 
== Perang melawan orang-orang Romawi==
{{Campaignbox Roman conquest of Hispania}}
{{Main|LusitanianPerang WarLusitania}}
TheBangsa Lusitani aredisebutkan mentioneduntuk forpertama thekalinya first time indalam [[Livy]] ([[218 BCSM]]) anddan aredigamarkan describedsebagai aspara tentara bayaran [[Carthage|CarthaginianKarthago]] mercenaries; they aremereka reporteddilaporkan asberperang fightingmelawan againstorang-orang RomeRomawi inpada [[194 BCSM]], sometimeskadang-kadang alliedbersekutu withdengan othersuku-suku [[CeltiberianKeltiberia]] tribeslainnya.
 
InPada [[179 BCSM]] the praetor [[Lucius Postumius Albinus]] celebrated amerayakan [[Romankemenangan TriumphRomawi|triumphkemenangan]] overatas thebangsa Lusitani, buttetapi inpada [[155 BCSM]], onmula-mula thedi commandbawah ofpimpinan [[Punicus]] (perhapsbarangkali aseorang Carthaginianjenderal generalKarthago) firstdan andsetelah itu [[Cesarus]] after, thebangsa Lusitani reachedmencapai [[Gibraltar]]. Here theyDi weresini defeatedmereka bydikalahkan theoleh praetor [[Lucius Mummius]].
 
[[Servius Sulpicius Galba]] organizedmembangun asebuah falsegencatan armisticesenjata tipuan, buttetapi whileketika thebangsa Lusitani celebratedmerayakan persekutuan thisyang newbaru allianceini, heia massacredmembantai themmereka, sellingmenjual themereka survivorsyang asselamat slaves;sebagai thisbudak. causedHal aini newmengakibatkan rebellionpemberontakan ledbaru byyang dipimpin oleh [[Viriathus]], whoyang wassegera soondibunuh killedoleh bypara traitorspengkhianat paidyang bydibayar theoleh Romansorang-orang Romawi. RomansOrang-orang Romawi memperoleh scoredberbagai otherkemenangan victorieslainnya withdengan proconsul [[Decimus Junius Brutus]] anddan [[Marius]] ([[113 BCSM]]), buttetapi still thebangsa Lusitani resistedtetap melawan dengan withsuatu aperang longgerilya guerillayang warpanjang; theymereka laterbelakangan joinedbergabung dengan pasukan-pasukan [[Sertorius]]' (aseorang renegadejenderal RomanRomawi General)yang troops andmemberontak) weredan finallyakhirnya defeateddikaklahkan byoleh [[Augustus]].
 
152 BCSM - FromSejak thismasa dateini onwardsRepublik theRomawi Romanmengalami Republickesulitan hasuntuk difficultiesmerekrut intentara recruitinguntuk soldierspeperangan for the wars indi Hispania, deemedyang dianggap particularlysangat brutal.
 
ReadBaca morelebih atjauh di [[TimelineGaris ofwaktu Portuguesesejarah historyPortugal (Prepra-RomanRomawi)]].
 
== RomanProvinsi provinceRomawi ==
[[Image:Hispania2c.JPG|thumb|right|300px|Roman Hispania underRomawi Diocletiandi bawah Diocletianus 293 BCESM; Lusitania found interdapat thedi extremeujung westbarat]]
 
<!--With Lusitania (and [[Asturia]] and [[Gallaecia]]), Rome had completed the conquest of the [[Iberian peninsula]], which was then divided by Augustus (25-20 BC) into the eastern and northern [[Hispania Tarraconensis]], the southwestern ''[[Hispania Baetica]]'' and the western ''Provincia Lusitana''. Originally Lusitania included the territories of Asturia and Gallaecia, but these were later ceded to the jurisdiction of the new ''Provincia Tarraconensis'' and the former remained as ''Provincia Lusitania et [[Vettones]]''. Its northern border was along the Douro, while on its eastern side its border passed through ''Salmantica'' and ''Caesarobriga'' to the ''Anas'' ([[Guadiana]]) river.
[[Image:Conimbriga ruins.jpg|thumb|right|300px|Elaborate geometrically patterned mosaic floors survive at Conímbriga]]
The capital of Lusitania was ''Augusta Emerita'' (currently [[Mérida, Spain|Mérida]]) in Spain. Modern [[Coimbra]], was the Roman city of [[Aeminium]], and near modern [[Condeixa-a-Nova]], was the Roman city of [[Conímbriga]]. Conímbriga was not the largest city of Lusitania, but it is the best preserved. Built on a long-inhabited site, it was sacked by the [[Suevi]] in 468, and its inhabitants fled to [[Aeminium]], which inherited its name and is nowadays known as Coimbra. Conimbriga's city walls are largely intact, and the mosaic floors (''illustration, right'') and foundations of many houses and public buildings remain. In the baths, visitors can view the network of stone heating ducts (the ''hypocaust'') beneath the now-missing floors. Archaeologists estimate that, though excavations began in 1898, only 10 percent of the city has been excavated.-->
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